**Precession & Proto-Metrology**

**PROTO-METROLOGY**

Earth’s Measure is the Golden Key to Precession

By Iona Miller, 2009

Earth’s Measure is the Golden Key to Precession

By Iona Miller, 2009

**Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period. In the 5th millennium BCE, the stone circles at Nabta Playa may have made use of astronomical alignments. By the time the historical Dynastic Period began in the 3rd millennium BCE, the 365 day period of the Egyptian calendar was already in use, and the observation of stars was important in determining the annual flooding of the Nile. The Egyptian pyramids were carefully aligned towards the pole star, and the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak was aligned on the rising of the midwinter sun. Astronomy played a considerable part in fixing the dates of religious festivals and determining the hours of the night, and temple astrologers were especially adept at watching the stars and observing the conjunctions, phases, and risings of the Sun, Moon and planets.**

In Ptolemaic Egypt, the Egyptian tradition merged with Greek astronomy and Babylonian astronomy, with the city of Alexandria in Lower Egypt becoming the centre of scientific activity across the Hellenistic world. Roman Egypt produced the greatest astronomer of the era, Ptolemy (90-168 CE). His works on astronomy, including the Almagest, became the most influential books in the history of Western astronomy. Following the Muslim conquest of Egypt, the region came to be dominated by Arabic culture and Islamic astronomy.

In Ptolemaic Egypt, the Egyptian tradition merged with Greek astronomy and Babylonian astronomy, with the city of Alexandria in Lower Egypt becoming the centre of scientific activity across the Hellenistic world. Roman Egypt produced the greatest astronomer of the era, Ptolemy (90-168 CE). His works on astronomy, including the Almagest, became the most influential books in the history of Western astronomy. Following the Muslim conquest of Egypt, the region came to be dominated by Arabic culture and Islamic astronomy.

**Earth’s Epochs**

There is a lost wisdom whose traces are found in ancient natural sciences, including cosmology. The Precession of the Equinoxes is a measure of Earth’s rotational axis (celestial pole) in space. Earth moves around in its orbit and rotates on its axis. But that axis creates a third motion of the Earth, relative to the fixed stars. The stars move across the sky at the rate of about one degree per 72 years.

The modern measure of one such cyclic span or period is 25,771.5 years but there are many variables in the calculation. After one full cycle of 25,771.5 years, the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back where they started."

But other effects -- including wobble, torque, magnitude of the Earth’s tilt and gravitational forces of other heavenly bodies -- also slowly change the shape and orientation of the Earth's orbit. These, in combination with precession, create various cycles of slightly differing periods.

Written history does not encompass even one such cycle as mythological history is less than 10,000 years old. Metrology is perhaps 5000 years old but mankind has been systematically observing the sky for at least 50,000 years. Legendary numbers seem to have originated in Sumerian culture as the result of geodesic and cosmological measurements discovered millennia ago, in the mists of prehistory.

The Sumerians mythologized “divine” numbers as time portals. Metrology and chronology go together as soon as we try to take Earth’s measure in the cosmos. It appears the system was observed or discovered through simple arithmetic, rather than contrived. Precession was the ideal prototype, the vast cosmic standard by which all other things were measured.

Mankind has an inherent love of measuring which is the natural basis of metrology. It has pragmatic survival and social value. Ancient metrology is the science whose evidence is encoded and mirrored in the sacred dimensions of the Pyramids, Stonehenge, and other earthly monuments oriented to the heavens. The numerical code lies behind the layouts of temples and cities and systems of measuring time from megalithic Britain to China and even in the Americas. (Scherz)

Measurement was a sacred system of knowledge established in prehistory, based on observations of cosmic cycles. Standards of measure were framed upon universal principles of number and the geophysical dimensions of the ever-turning Earth. There is no starting nor ending point. Celestial time is virtually inconceivable without the Great Cycle.

There is a lost wisdom whose traces are found in ancient natural sciences, including cosmology. The Precession of the Equinoxes is a measure of Earth’s rotational axis (celestial pole) in space. Earth moves around in its orbit and rotates on its axis. But that axis creates a third motion of the Earth, relative to the fixed stars. The stars move across the sky at the rate of about one degree per 72 years.

The modern measure of one such cyclic span or period is 25,771.5 years but there are many variables in the calculation. After one full cycle of 25,771.5 years, the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back where they started."

But other effects -- including wobble, torque, magnitude of the Earth’s tilt and gravitational forces of other heavenly bodies -- also slowly change the shape and orientation of the Earth's orbit. These, in combination with precession, create various cycles of slightly differing periods.

Written history does not encompass even one such cycle as mythological history is less than 10,000 years old. Metrology is perhaps 5000 years old but mankind has been systematically observing the sky for at least 50,000 years. Legendary numbers seem to have originated in Sumerian culture as the result of geodesic and cosmological measurements discovered millennia ago, in the mists of prehistory.

The Sumerians mythologized “divine” numbers as time portals. Metrology and chronology go together as soon as we try to take Earth’s measure in the cosmos. It appears the system was observed or discovered through simple arithmetic, rather than contrived. Precession was the ideal prototype, the vast cosmic standard by which all other things were measured.

Mankind has an inherent love of measuring which is the natural basis of metrology. It has pragmatic survival and social value. Ancient metrology is the science whose evidence is encoded and mirrored in the sacred dimensions of the Pyramids, Stonehenge, and other earthly monuments oriented to the heavens. The numerical code lies behind the layouts of temples and cities and systems of measuring time from megalithic Britain to China and even in the Americas. (Scherz)

Measurement was a sacred system of knowledge established in prehistory, based on observations of cosmic cycles. Standards of measure were framed upon universal principles of number and the geophysical dimensions of the ever-turning Earth. There is no starting nor ending point. Celestial time is virtually inconceivable without the Great Cycle.

**Immense Movement**

Precession is the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation, which, like a wobbling top, traces out a conical shape in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years as it maps the heavens. The Sumerian calendar was based on the 25,920 Precession cycles. The Platonic Year was based on the divine number 2160 (1080 x 2). Plato mentions another divine number in his Republic -- 5040 (2520 x 2).

12 x 2160 = 25920

20 x 108 = 2160

36 x 60 = 2160

2160 + 360 = 2520

2160 + 432 = 2592

The key to the comprehensive analysis of general number behavior is found in the concept of "circular unity." Circular unity is an idea demonstrated by the harmonious interaction of the first six numbers. SIX is the first perfect number, being the sum of its first three digits, or 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.

1 x 2 x 3 = 6; 62 = 36; 36 x 3 = 108; 362 =1296 x 2 = 2592.

The Precession of the Equinoxes was first noticed as a slow but steady slippage through the Zodiac of 1 degree every 72 years. A full cycle was a journey of Earth through all the signs of the Zodiac. The equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the motion of the Sun along the ecliptic.

To complete one cycle of the zodiac--a "Great" or Platonic Year--requires 25,920 years. Dividing this sum by 360 yields the number 432, the root of the mythological count of 432,000 years. However, it is not only mythological, or archetypal--it was discovered by centuries of controlled astronomical observation, even prior to written record-keeping.

Precession is the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation, which, like a wobbling top, traces out a conical shape in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years as it maps the heavens. The Sumerian calendar was based on the 25,920 Precession cycles. The Platonic Year was based on the divine number 2160 (1080 x 2). Plato mentions another divine number in his Republic -- 5040 (2520 x 2).

12 x 2160 = 25920

20 x 108 = 2160

36 x 60 = 2160

2160 + 360 = 2520

2160 + 432 = 2592

The key to the comprehensive analysis of general number behavior is found in the concept of "circular unity." Circular unity is an idea demonstrated by the harmonious interaction of the first six numbers. SIX is the first perfect number, being the sum of its first three digits, or 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.

1 x 2 x 3 = 6; 62 = 36; 36 x 3 = 108; 362 =1296 x 2 = 2592.

The Precession of the Equinoxes was first noticed as a slow but steady slippage through the Zodiac of 1 degree every 72 years. A full cycle was a journey of Earth through all the signs of the Zodiac. The equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the motion of the Sun along the ecliptic.

To complete one cycle of the zodiac--a "Great" or Platonic Year--requires 25,920 years. Dividing this sum by 360 yields the number 432, the root of the mythological count of 432,000 years. However, it is not only mythological, or archetypal--it was discovered by centuries of controlled astronomical observation, even prior to written record-keeping.

**Numerical Harmonics**

Cosmology, horizon-based astronomy, astrology, architecture, navigation, geography, geometry, mathematics, timekeeping, writing, proportion in art, and musical notation were all related to numerical canon. The ancients encoded their knowledge of the world in their sacred monuments and texts as an esoteric code of numbers, formulas, and proportion.

There are cross-cultural links in units of measure related to sexagesimal fractions of meridian degree. All relate fractionally to the Sumerian cubit. Although no measuring devices survive from Sumeria, the varying values of the Sumerian cubit have been accurately established from the dimensions of buildings, the measurement of bricks, and from cuneiform tablets that record these dimensions.

The most widely acknowledged value of the cubit is taken from that of the half-cubit represented as a rule on the statue of Gudea from Lagash, and given as 248mm. The cubit usually divided sexagesimally into 30 fingers is at times divided into 24 fingers as in the rest of the ancient world. This 24th division of the Sumerian cubit is the Megalithic inch. Obviously this digit is the Sumerian value, 24 to that cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian and 40 to the Megalithic yard. Units were kept standard in the dimensions of permanent stone monuments. (Neal, 2003)

“The sacred Jewish cubit, that of Moses and Ezekiel, expressed as "a cubit and a hands breadth" refers to the royal Egyptian as the basic cubit. Since a hands breadth is 5 digits, the implication is that 5 such hands comprise the royal Egyptian and 6 the sacred Jewish, this digit is therefore the Megalithic "inch": 15 to the "common" Greek foot, 24 to the Sumerian cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian cubit, 30 to the sacred Jewish cubit and 40 to the Megalithic yard. There is little doubt that we are regarding a single organization of measurement in what has previously been viewed as quite separate systems.” (Neal)

Ancient religions had pronounced astrological elements, which have defined precessional ages from Taurus through Pisces, and the imminent age of Aquarius. Ancient state temples may have functioned as permanent repositories of standards of measures. Gods, (to whom the temples were dedicated) had characteristic numbers, from which they were indistinguishable.

The exemplar number, 108, is known as the number of the Universe. It also corresponds with the god Brahma, and the seed-syllable AUM or OM. Numbers expressed qualities, not just quantities. Prime numbers figure prominently in the measuring and numerical canons of ancient and modern times.

In the old beliefs, this code, (whose true source is lost in prehistoric antiquity), is always alleged to have a divine origin, from the gods or a god-like man. Lore relating to sacred words or phrases arose, because letters and numbers were interchangable or alphanumeric. The code arises naturally from the inherent structure of arithmetic. This golden code emphasized certain key numbers, which were seized upon by different cultures.

Ancient Metrics

Metrology was the basis for development of both philosophic and scientific attitudes. The divine order of the universe was the central idea of the ancient world, and all belief-systems were enmeshed with it. Metrology provided the foundation of the systematic rational vision of the world. Cosmic order embodied in metrology was the fundamental aspect of ancient thought. Number mysticism was the essential basis of most of their knowledge.

Of course, information about the Universe has always been there, but its availability is limited to those prepared to receive or decode it. Ancient cosmologies were not only models of the physical universe, but representations of a universal mathematical archetype. The numerical canon revealed correspondences between different orders of natural phenomena. Metrology included sacred units for measuring the Universe, units of time, space, weight, and mass (or volume).

Root Gauge

The ancient sacred units of measure come from the principle dimensions of the earth (geodesic or geodetic) and astronomical (or cosmological) constants, such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, and the orbital periods of the observable planets.

Land was measured in Mesopotamia and Egypt by the same “statute foot” we use today. The “geographic foot” is related to the length of a minute of arc at a latitude which corresponds to that found in lands such as northern Egypt. By definition, there are 6000 geographic feet in a nautical mile (one minute of latitude arc on the surface of the earth). 1/10 of a nautical mile is an ancient land measure called the "geographic stade"--600 geographic feet, or 606 (600 + 6) of our common feet. (Stecchini; Scherz)

Geography developed from metrology. Traders and navigators needed to calculate distances and time for travel. This link between measures of length and time united metrology and astronomy, and led to astronomical navigation. Ancient navigators used a sexigesimal method of dividing the horizon, using six (rather than four) cardinal directions.

Widening Gyre

Ancient linear measures expressed fractions of the earth's dimensions (polar diameter, circumference, radius, meridian circumference), generally in units of 12. Thus, we have 360 degrees of latitude, each of 60 minutes of 3600 seconds.

Cross-culturally, ancient units of measure relate proportionately to each other, because the old units (whether Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Chinese, etc.) represent fractions of the earth's dimensions. Russian archaeologist Bieliaev, points out that the same weights with the same subdivisions are found in early Rome and India of the third millennium B.C. He traced connecting links to Sumer and Egypt, and found the same units used in medieval Russia.

In ancient times, the Universe meant the observable Universe. For Pythagorean and Platonist thinkers, the patterns of numerical relationships which occur in the processes of arithmetic and geometry were considered the formative influences behind all of nature's phenomena. Numerical patterns were detected in the manifestations and dynamics of nature. Behind this is a philosophy of numbers which express universal relationships.

Although usually superceded by practical arithmetic, there is much to learn from the study of the relationship of number and form. The essence of all matter is dynamic relationships. Number is the 'first paradigm,' the basic ordering principle of nature.

Transient, Eternal or Cyclic?

Many so-called "key numbers of the Solar System" are involved, because key numbers have always stood out for their unique properties. The ancients discovered them through aeons of empirical observations of cosmic cycles. They were capable of observing long-term effects, (such as the precessional cycle), with horizon-based astronomy. Their observations of the divine order were central to the core of their civilizations.

Ancient metrology does provide a clue to what numbers might be interesting to investigate.

#108 as the Hindu number of the Universe is a circular totality which encodes the structure of Epochs or Divine Ages. Since the incremental 'numbers of the ages' are multiples of #108, when enspiralled along 108 axes, the characters 0 - 6480 all align along the zero/108 axis -- they naturally share the same neighborhood when displayed as "Mandalogs" or "Holotomes". (Miller & Marshall, Syndex I)

Cosmology, horizon-based astronomy, astrology, architecture, navigation, geography, geometry, mathematics, timekeeping, writing, proportion in art, and musical notation were all related to numerical canon. The ancients encoded their knowledge of the world in their sacred monuments and texts as an esoteric code of numbers, formulas, and proportion.

There are cross-cultural links in units of measure related to sexagesimal fractions of meridian degree. All relate fractionally to the Sumerian cubit. Although no measuring devices survive from Sumeria, the varying values of the Sumerian cubit have been accurately established from the dimensions of buildings, the measurement of bricks, and from cuneiform tablets that record these dimensions.

The most widely acknowledged value of the cubit is taken from that of the half-cubit represented as a rule on the statue of Gudea from Lagash, and given as 248mm. The cubit usually divided sexagesimally into 30 fingers is at times divided into 24 fingers as in the rest of the ancient world. This 24th division of the Sumerian cubit is the Megalithic inch. Obviously this digit is the Sumerian value, 24 to that cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian and 40 to the Megalithic yard. Units were kept standard in the dimensions of permanent stone monuments. (Neal, 2003)

“The sacred Jewish cubit, that of Moses and Ezekiel, expressed as "a cubit and a hands breadth" refers to the royal Egyptian as the basic cubit. Since a hands breadth is 5 digits, the implication is that 5 such hands comprise the royal Egyptian and 6 the sacred Jewish, this digit is therefore the Megalithic "inch": 15 to the "common" Greek foot, 24 to the Sumerian cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian cubit, 30 to the sacred Jewish cubit and 40 to the Megalithic yard. There is little doubt that we are regarding a single organization of measurement in what has previously been viewed as quite separate systems.” (Neal)

Ancient religions had pronounced astrological elements, which have defined precessional ages from Taurus through Pisces, and the imminent age of Aquarius. Ancient state temples may have functioned as permanent repositories of standards of measures. Gods, (to whom the temples were dedicated) had characteristic numbers, from which they were indistinguishable.

The exemplar number, 108, is known as the number of the Universe. It also corresponds with the god Brahma, and the seed-syllable AUM or OM. Numbers expressed qualities, not just quantities. Prime numbers figure prominently in the measuring and numerical canons of ancient and modern times.

In the old beliefs, this code, (whose true source is lost in prehistoric antiquity), is always alleged to have a divine origin, from the gods or a god-like man. Lore relating to sacred words or phrases arose, because letters and numbers were interchangable or alphanumeric. The code arises naturally from the inherent structure of arithmetic. This golden code emphasized certain key numbers, which were seized upon by different cultures.

Ancient Metrics

Metrology was the basis for development of both philosophic and scientific attitudes. The divine order of the universe was the central idea of the ancient world, and all belief-systems were enmeshed with it. Metrology provided the foundation of the systematic rational vision of the world. Cosmic order embodied in metrology was the fundamental aspect of ancient thought. Number mysticism was the essential basis of most of their knowledge.

Of course, information about the Universe has always been there, but its availability is limited to those prepared to receive or decode it. Ancient cosmologies were not only models of the physical universe, but representations of a universal mathematical archetype. The numerical canon revealed correspondences between different orders of natural phenomena. Metrology included sacred units for measuring the Universe, units of time, space, weight, and mass (or volume).

Root Gauge

The ancient sacred units of measure come from the principle dimensions of the earth (geodesic or geodetic) and astronomical (or cosmological) constants, such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, and the orbital periods of the observable planets.

Land was measured in Mesopotamia and Egypt by the same “statute foot” we use today. The “geographic foot” is related to the length of a minute of arc at a latitude which corresponds to that found in lands such as northern Egypt. By definition, there are 6000 geographic feet in a nautical mile (one minute of latitude arc on the surface of the earth). 1/10 of a nautical mile is an ancient land measure called the "geographic stade"--600 geographic feet, or 606 (600 + 6) of our common feet. (Stecchini; Scherz)

Geography developed from metrology. Traders and navigators needed to calculate distances and time for travel. This link between measures of length and time united metrology and astronomy, and led to astronomical navigation. Ancient navigators used a sexigesimal method of dividing the horizon, using six (rather than four) cardinal directions.

Widening Gyre

Ancient linear measures expressed fractions of the earth's dimensions (polar diameter, circumference, radius, meridian circumference), generally in units of 12. Thus, we have 360 degrees of latitude, each of 60 minutes of 3600 seconds.

Cross-culturally, ancient units of measure relate proportionately to each other, because the old units (whether Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Chinese, etc.) represent fractions of the earth's dimensions. Russian archaeologist Bieliaev, points out that the same weights with the same subdivisions are found in early Rome and India of the third millennium B.C. He traced connecting links to Sumer and Egypt, and found the same units used in medieval Russia.

In ancient times, the Universe meant the observable Universe. For Pythagorean and Platonist thinkers, the patterns of numerical relationships which occur in the processes of arithmetic and geometry were considered the formative influences behind all of nature's phenomena. Numerical patterns were detected in the manifestations and dynamics of nature. Behind this is a philosophy of numbers which express universal relationships.

Although usually superceded by practical arithmetic, there is much to learn from the study of the relationship of number and form. The essence of all matter is dynamic relationships. Number is the 'first paradigm,' the basic ordering principle of nature.

Transient, Eternal or Cyclic?

Many so-called "key numbers of the Solar System" are involved, because key numbers have always stood out for their unique properties. The ancients discovered them through aeons of empirical observations of cosmic cycles. They were capable of observing long-term effects, (such as the precessional cycle), with horizon-based astronomy. Their observations of the divine order were central to the core of their civilizations.

Ancient metrology does provide a clue to what numbers might be interesting to investigate.

*Syndex II*(Miller) follows the clues by using direct observation of natural number behavior displayed in a spiral, rather than interpretation of what is there to be seen. Certain numbers graphically call attention to themselves. It requires no ancient, alien, or mystical source, no occult doctrine or arcane secret, no ideology. It predicts no "end time." It is simply a graphically revealed "truth."#108 as the Hindu number of the Universe is a circular totality which encodes the structure of Epochs or Divine Ages. Since the incremental 'numbers of the ages' are multiples of #108, when enspiralled along 108 axes, the characters 0 - 6480 all align along the zero/108 axis -- they naturally share the same neighborhood when displayed as "Mandalogs" or "Holotomes". (Miller & Marshall, Syndex I)

**By starting with 6 (the first perfect number) and multiplying by the primes in their natural order, we get the sequence 12, 24, 72, 360, 2520, 27720, 360360, 6126120, etc. Each of these numbers forms a geometrical entity, a circular unity, (Holotome). These numbers just happen to be the exact sequence of minimal sums that accomodate the maximal amount of factors of division. Their synergetic qualities have remained unnoticed in classical number theory.**

**The synchrographic structure of the two ancient Hindu modules of circular unity disclose that the Yugas fall into a perfect tertiary symmetry. The Ages assume a perfect quadric symmetry when spiralled along 108 axes of a number field, array, or matrix. The final number of this synchrograph is 6480. The number of zeros at the end of any astronomical Hindu number is nearly arbitrary. The glyph unifies the two ancient systems.**

Sacred Measurement

In antiquity, knowledge of an alphanumerical canon spread throughout the Middle East, to Greece and India, back to the Moslem Empire, and from there into medieval Europe to catalyze the Renaissance. India raised mathematics to a high art with its most revered number 108, the number of OM and the Universe, the number of Brahma.

This number formed the basis of the Ages and Yugas, which are all multiples of this sacred numberword. Yugas include 432, 864, 1296, 1728 and add to 4320. Ages include 648, 1296, 1944, 2592 and add to 6480.

108 is itself 3 x 36--part of the Sumerian sar, 3600, also dubbed the number of the Universe, a unit of Divine Time, a year of the gods (3,600 earth-years). The number of zeros tacked on the end of these cosmological numbers is almost irrelevant, and merely emphasizes their vast importance.

Since 108 is 3 x 36 and both systems mutually include the square of 36 (1296), it becomes evident that the classic 360 degree circular unity is the common denominator of these separate systems (360 degrees of 60 minutes or 3600 seconds each).

According to Neugebauer (1952), "the division of the circumference of a circle into 360 parts originated in Babylonian astronomy of the last centuries B.C. The sexagesimal number system as such is many centuries older and has nothing to do with astronomical concepts."

However, in a far newer work, Sumerian scholar Zecharia Sitchen (1993) differs in opinion, attributing both mathematical astronomy and 360 circular unity to the Sumerians, based on his own cuneiform translations. He also refers to "the role that the key number 12 played in Sumerian science," and the "celestial 72," which comes from the precessional shift of 1 degree. He notes that 120 sars equals 432,000 earth-years. This is the number of the Great Yuga.

The key to Sumerian metrology is not as simple as the sexigesimal 6 x 60 = 360. Even in Sumeria, the sexigesimal system (60-division) was only applied in strictly mathematical and astronomical contexts. The sexagesimal numerical system had a decimal substratum (36 x 10 = 360). In other matters they used 24-division, 12-division, 10-division, and 2-division.

The real key involves the sequence in which prime numbers naturally occur in the baseten continuum. This is demonstated by multipling the third and fourth Holotomes together: 72 x 360 = 25920, a number given for the Precession of the Equinoxes in Sumerian cuneiform records. Clearly, this number relates directly to Yugas and Ages.

72 x 36 = 25920 divided by 2 = 12960;

divided by 3 = 8640

by 4 = 6480; by 6 = 4320

72 + 360 = 432

Contemplation of the numberwheel 108 discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." 864 is 12 x 72, holotomes A and C; 1728 is 24 x 72, holotomes B and C.

Both systems share 362 = 1296.

Mathematical Wisdom

Contemplation of this number wheel discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." The key numbers of ancient metrology and the Holotomic Sequence are found in positions of perfect symmetry (such as the quadratic array of the four-digit palindromic sequence: 1881, 2772, 3663, 4554) where only chaos exists in classical number theory. Nature's behaviors coincide with the most crucial divisions of the synergetic continuum of baseten number.

The main thread of the number concept in the crossroads cultures passed from Sumeria-Akkadia-Babylonia to Phoenicia to Hellenistic (and Hebrew), to Indian to Islamic to European cultures. Key numbers, cosmic cycles, and divine numbers permeate the number concepts of all these cultures. The Greeks and Hebrews had alphanumeric systems which developed into numerology and numberword mysticism.

Number mystics from the Pythagoreans onward considered number 'one' as the Infinite God, the First Cause, the One who transcends all multiplicity. To the Greeks, numbers were divine concepts, ideas in the mind the god who had fashioned the world. God was a great mathematician. In the Hebrew Qabala, the world is made with numbers and letters. In more accurate terms, the characters representing manifestation were alphanumeric.

The SEFIR YETZIRAH, the Book of Creation or Formation (300-600 AD) describes how God created the manifest universe by means of letters and numbers which are the foundation of all things. The letters are part of 'one body,' the alphabet which is an extension of God's own being. All created things, made by means of the letters, are also parts of the one body which is God.

True being for the Hebrew is the 'word,' dabhar, which comprises all Hebraic realities: word, deed, and concrete object. Non-being, nothing (no thing) is signified correspondingly by 'not word,' lo dabhar.

In European magical tradition, the most important of all alphanumeric alphabets is the Hebrew which had 22 letters, all of which were consonants. Vowels were inferred from context Contemplation (theory) and application (practice) is the mystical tradition of Qabala. In this alphabet there are no vowels (our a,e,i,o, and u) represented. The same is true of the older Phoenician (Canaanite) alphabet, from which our own alphabet is descended--by way of the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin alphabets.

All over the ancient orient, in Assyria and Babylonia, as well as Egypt, the word and particularly the word of God, was not only nor even primarily an expression of thought; it was a mighty and dynamic force. The Assyrians and Babylonians conceived of the divine word under the image of a physical-cosmic power.

In Egypt, the power of creating and sustaining everything was traced back to the divine word, the ever-active fluid or ethereal divine substance proceeding out of the mouth of divinity. For example, in Memphis, Ptah is the Creator of the world. The specific organ of creation is 'the mouth which named all things.'

There is an ancient code of numbers and proportion based on metrological standards of measure. Such constants as astronomical Precession, and geodetic measures such as polar diameter provided the basic context. Fractions of the earth's principle dimensions mirrored numerical patterns in the appearance and movement of nature.

These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar. Earlier measures of astronomy, astrology, and cosmology were usually in units of 12, as were various ancient units of measurement of time.

Constants of Nature

Mankind counted days and the changing of the moon and seasons for millennia before recorded history. As early as 3760 BC, the Sumerians created a lunar calendar. By 2800 B.C., they had worked our a cycle of 19 years which kept it synchronized with the solar year and seasons. Certain years had 12 lunar months, while others had thirteen. This lunar calendar was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Greeks and Jews. The Nippur calendar is still the basis of Jewish religious ceremonies. The Hebrew year in 2009 is 5769.

Sumerian astronomy included the concept of "deep time," as recounted in the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Creation. Ancient texts known as the Sumerian King Lists describe the settling of the divine Anunnaki on Earth before the deluge. They list the governorships of the first 10 leaders which lasted a total of 120 sars, or 432,000 Earth-years.

This is a direct source for divine eras in Hindu lore, but they expand the vastness to an overall time span of 4,320,000, and then to a Divine Year or Day of Lord Brahma--4,320,000,000--a thousandfold great yugas. The Sumerian formula is echoed in the Hindu traditions.

Sacred Measurement

In antiquity, knowledge of an alphanumerical canon spread throughout the Middle East, to Greece and India, back to the Moslem Empire, and from there into medieval Europe to catalyze the Renaissance. India raised mathematics to a high art with its most revered number 108, the number of OM and the Universe, the number of Brahma.

This number formed the basis of the Ages and Yugas, which are all multiples of this sacred numberword. Yugas include 432, 864, 1296, 1728 and add to 4320. Ages include 648, 1296, 1944, 2592 and add to 6480.

108 is itself 3 x 36--part of the Sumerian sar, 3600, also dubbed the number of the Universe, a unit of Divine Time, a year of the gods (3,600 earth-years). The number of zeros tacked on the end of these cosmological numbers is almost irrelevant, and merely emphasizes their vast importance.

Since 108 is 3 x 36 and both systems mutually include the square of 36 (1296), it becomes evident that the classic 360 degree circular unity is the common denominator of these separate systems (360 degrees of 60 minutes or 3600 seconds each).

According to Neugebauer (1952), "the division of the circumference of a circle into 360 parts originated in Babylonian astronomy of the last centuries B.C. The sexagesimal number system as such is many centuries older and has nothing to do with astronomical concepts."

However, in a far newer work, Sumerian scholar Zecharia Sitchen (1993) differs in opinion, attributing both mathematical astronomy and 360 circular unity to the Sumerians, based on his own cuneiform translations. He also refers to "the role that the key number 12 played in Sumerian science," and the "celestial 72," which comes from the precessional shift of 1 degree. He notes that 120 sars equals 432,000 earth-years. This is the number of the Great Yuga.

The key to Sumerian metrology is not as simple as the sexigesimal 6 x 60 = 360. Even in Sumeria, the sexigesimal system (60-division) was only applied in strictly mathematical and astronomical contexts. The sexagesimal numerical system had a decimal substratum (36 x 10 = 360). In other matters they used 24-division, 12-division, 10-division, and 2-division.

The real key involves the sequence in which prime numbers naturally occur in the baseten continuum. This is demonstated by multipling the third and fourth Holotomes together: 72 x 360 = 25920, a number given for the Precession of the Equinoxes in Sumerian cuneiform records. Clearly, this number relates directly to Yugas and Ages.

72 x 36 = 25920 divided by 2 = 12960;

divided by 3 = 8640

by 4 = 6480; by 6 = 4320

72 + 360 = 432

Contemplation of the numberwheel 108 discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." 864 is 12 x 72, holotomes A and C; 1728 is 24 x 72, holotomes B and C.

Both systems share 362 = 1296.

Mathematical Wisdom

Contemplation of this number wheel discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." The key numbers of ancient metrology and the Holotomic Sequence are found in positions of perfect symmetry (such as the quadratic array of the four-digit palindromic sequence: 1881, 2772, 3663, 4554) where only chaos exists in classical number theory. Nature's behaviors coincide with the most crucial divisions of the synergetic continuum of baseten number.

The main thread of the number concept in the crossroads cultures passed from Sumeria-Akkadia-Babylonia to Phoenicia to Hellenistic (and Hebrew), to Indian to Islamic to European cultures. Key numbers, cosmic cycles, and divine numbers permeate the number concepts of all these cultures. The Greeks and Hebrews had alphanumeric systems which developed into numerology and numberword mysticism.

Number mystics from the Pythagoreans onward considered number 'one' as the Infinite God, the First Cause, the One who transcends all multiplicity. To the Greeks, numbers were divine concepts, ideas in the mind the god who had fashioned the world. God was a great mathematician. In the Hebrew Qabala, the world is made with numbers and letters. In more accurate terms, the characters representing manifestation were alphanumeric.

The SEFIR YETZIRAH, the Book of Creation or Formation (300-600 AD) describes how God created the manifest universe by means of letters and numbers which are the foundation of all things. The letters are part of 'one body,' the alphabet which is an extension of God's own being. All created things, made by means of the letters, are also parts of the one body which is God.

True being for the Hebrew is the 'word,' dabhar, which comprises all Hebraic realities: word, deed, and concrete object. Non-being, nothing (no thing) is signified correspondingly by 'not word,' lo dabhar.

In European magical tradition, the most important of all alphanumeric alphabets is the Hebrew which had 22 letters, all of which were consonants. Vowels were inferred from context Contemplation (theory) and application (practice) is the mystical tradition of Qabala. In this alphabet there are no vowels (our a,e,i,o, and u) represented. The same is true of the older Phoenician (Canaanite) alphabet, from which our own alphabet is descended--by way of the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin alphabets.

All over the ancient orient, in Assyria and Babylonia, as well as Egypt, the word and particularly the word of God, was not only nor even primarily an expression of thought; it was a mighty and dynamic force. The Assyrians and Babylonians conceived of the divine word under the image of a physical-cosmic power.

In Egypt, the power of creating and sustaining everything was traced back to the divine word, the ever-active fluid or ethereal divine substance proceeding out of the mouth of divinity. For example, in Memphis, Ptah is the Creator of the world. The specific organ of creation is 'the mouth which named all things.'

There is an ancient code of numbers and proportion based on metrological standards of measure. Such constants as astronomical Precession, and geodetic measures such as polar diameter provided the basic context. Fractions of the earth's principle dimensions mirrored numerical patterns in the appearance and movement of nature.

These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar. Earlier measures of astronomy, astrology, and cosmology were usually in units of 12, as were various ancient units of measurement of time.

Constants of Nature

Mankind counted days and the changing of the moon and seasons for millennia before recorded history. As early as 3760 BC, the Sumerians created a lunar calendar. By 2800 B.C., they had worked our a cycle of 19 years which kept it synchronized with the solar year and seasons. Certain years had 12 lunar months, while others had thirteen. This lunar calendar was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Greeks and Jews. The Nippur calendar is still the basis of Jewish religious ceremonies. The Hebrew year in 2009 is 5769.

Sumerian astronomy included the concept of "deep time," as recounted in the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Creation. Ancient texts known as the Sumerian King Lists describe the settling of the divine Anunnaki on Earth before the deluge. They list the governorships of the first 10 leaders which lasted a total of 120 sars, or 432,000 Earth-years.

This is a direct source for divine eras in Hindu lore, but they expand the vastness to an overall time span of 4,320,000, and then to a Divine Year or Day of Lord Brahma--4,320,000,000--a thousandfold great yugas. The Sumerian formula is echoed in the Hindu traditions.

**From Sumeria comes the ubiquitous concept of a sky divided into 360 degrees of Latitude, 60 minutes of 3600 seconds; 12 month years beginning on Spring Equinox; 12 hours of day and night (2x12=24); 12 signs of the Zodiac, etc.**

Sumerian fractions were geared to the principle of repeated halving. Whole unit or natural fractions are important in arranging metrological units. The system based on 60 is evenly divisibly by 2,3,4,5,6,10,15, and 30 eliminating the frequent need of fractions. This naturally leads to grouping higher units in 12, 30, or 60. All these ratios occur in one or another of the parallel systems of units in Mesopotamian metrology. 4320 is one such number; so is 108000.

The Greek astronomers adopted this system, and so did their followers in India, the Islamic Empire, and Europe. Much of the mathematical knowledge commonly ascribed to the early Greek philosophers was already known to the Egyptians and Mesopotamians centuries before the rise of Greek civilization. However, the Greeks preserved and spread this knowledge. They were the first to consider mathematical concepts as abstractions not part of the real world, but of the idealized "sacred space" of the human mind.

There is some evidence of ancient India having direct contact with Sumeria around 2500 B.C. This is difficult to document, but not to deduce. However, nevertheless, Hindus contributed the final step to mathematical astronomy, namely, the use of the place value notation for the smaller decimal units. This is where we get our divisions of 60, 24, 12, and 2.

As we have shown elsewhere, these are closely allied to the HOLOTOMIC SEQUENCE: 12 - 24 - 72 - 360 - 2520, etc. These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar rooted in Precession cycles and natural number dynamics.

REFERENCES

Berriman, A.E. (1953) Historical Metrology

Knorr, W. R. (1985), The geometer and the archaeoastronomers: on the prehistoric origins of mathematics. Review of: Geometry and algebra in ancient civilizations [Springer, Berlin, 1983; MR: 85b:01001] by B. L. van der Waerden. British J. Hist. Sci. 18 (1985), no. 59, part 2, 197--212. SC: 01A10, MR: 87k:01003.

Michell, J. (1981), Ancient Metrology,

Miller, Iona and Robert Marshall (1998), SYNDEX II, A synergetic revisioning of number dynamics in light of ancient metrology and modern cosmography www.geocities.com/numeronom...dexii.html

Scherz, Old World Units of Measure Found in the Layout Geometry of Prehistoric Earthworks at Newark, Ohio By Dr James P Scherz www.midwesternepigraphic.org/scherz.html

Sitchen, Zecharia (1997), When Time Began, Avon; New York.

Sumerian fractions were geared to the principle of repeated halving. Whole unit or natural fractions are important in arranging metrological units. The system based on 60 is evenly divisibly by 2,3,4,5,6,10,15, and 30 eliminating the frequent need of fractions. This naturally leads to grouping higher units in 12, 30, or 60. All these ratios occur in one or another of the parallel systems of units in Mesopotamian metrology. 4320 is one such number; so is 108000.

The Greek astronomers adopted this system, and so did their followers in India, the Islamic Empire, and Europe. Much of the mathematical knowledge commonly ascribed to the early Greek philosophers was already known to the Egyptians and Mesopotamians centuries before the rise of Greek civilization. However, the Greeks preserved and spread this knowledge. They were the first to consider mathematical concepts as abstractions not part of the real world, but of the idealized "sacred space" of the human mind.

There is some evidence of ancient India having direct contact with Sumeria around 2500 B.C. This is difficult to document, but not to deduce. However, nevertheless, Hindus contributed the final step to mathematical astronomy, namely, the use of the place value notation for the smaller decimal units. This is where we get our divisions of 60, 24, 12, and 2.

As we have shown elsewhere, these are closely allied to the HOLOTOMIC SEQUENCE: 12 - 24 - 72 - 360 - 2520, etc. These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar rooted in Precession cycles and natural number dynamics.

REFERENCES

Berriman, A.E. (1953) Historical Metrology

Knorr, W. R. (1985), The geometer and the archaeoastronomers: on the prehistoric origins of mathematics. Review of: Geometry and algebra in ancient civilizations [Springer, Berlin, 1983; MR: 85b:01001] by B. L. van der Waerden. British J. Hist. Sci. 18 (1985), no. 59, part 2, 197--212. SC: 01A10, MR: 87k:01003.

Michell, J. (1981), Ancient Metrology,

Miller, Iona and Robert Marshall (1998), SYNDEX II, A synergetic revisioning of number dynamics in light of ancient metrology and modern cosmography www.geocities.com/numeronom...dexii.html

Scherz, Old World Units of Measure Found in the Layout Geometry of Prehistoric Earthworks at Newark, Ohio By Dr James P Scherz www.midwesternepigraphic.org/scherz.html

Sitchen, Zecharia (1997), When Time Began, Avon; New York.

THE AURIC KEY: SYNDEX I and SYNDEX II by Iona Miller and Robert "Bob" Marshall

Dragon Precession

**The Milky Way is the water of heaven, the spiral circle of the cosmos whose secret is revealed in the Great Cycle of the Precession, the Zero-Point of Solar/Galactic Alignment.****This Key marks the zero-point of the Precession.****The Dot, or Point represents the absorption of the All, of Creation, into its Origin. The Point correlates with the Origin.****Material creation enfolded back into the Source, is dissolving manifestation in the ocean of its Origin. The Dot is thus equal to the Circle. It is the Circle, just as each degree or dot of the Circle represents the entire Circle, and consequently the Dot contains all and any possibility of material manifestation.****Dragon Tracks - Precession Paradigm****The prime paradigm of each era is that of its Age. On December 25, 3117 B.C. a total solar eclipse was visible at Sunrise at the Winter Solstice point, in the era of the global Dragon culture. This date is the Beginning of the Mayan Calendar. It is also the start of the Reign of Me-Sin or Menes, the first Pharaoh King that united Egypt.****The beginning of the new calendar marks the most important Geophysical Event of the past five millennia, the Great Flood. One of the causes of the Great Flood could be a close encounter of the earth with the comet, Typhon the Dragon.****Dragons are real and the basis of scientific priesthood and royal lineage. The sacred past is a story of sacred dragon or serpent worship. The triangular Dragon Book is essentially a magical astronomical text. Civilization was originally rooted in ancient prehistoric observations of the order of the stars. It tracked time and created calendars, and most importantly allowed predictions of eclipses rooted in the GREAT CYCLE of PRECESSION of the Zodiac, the serpentine ring of the Ecliptic.****The Center of the Universe, the Pole Star, as the most important point in the Universe. The Pole Star, the Hole in the Centre, was the entrance to the Other Worlds. Megalithic temples are tuned to this Great Cycle drama in the heavens.****The "tuning and untuning of the sky" is an actual astronomical occurrence.****The Center of the Universe is not fixed. It moves around in a circle counter the Circle of the Zodiac. The Movement of the Center is called the Precession of the Equinox, and takes about 26,400 years. This movement was already known before the Great Flood occured. Plato called it the Great Year, and each of its "months" is a sign of the Zodiac.****Some 6,500 years ago the position of the equinoctial sun was aligned with the band of the Milky Way. This provided an obvious celestial alignment, occurring twice a year on the equinoxes, when the sun would conjunct the Milky Way -- the Bridge Out of Tim -- opening the way out of the plane of the living (the zodiac) and up to the cosmic center and source in heaven. A "breaking asunder" occurred when this great cosmogonic picture began to precess out of alignment. Presumably, the "untuning of the sky" coincided with increasing social tension, leading to greater collective confusion and our descent into history.****The earth either wobbles in what is known as the Precession of the Equinox or orbits in a binary star system with the same observable result. This wobble take approximately 25,800 years to go from a beginning point and return to that point. But the earth doesn't really return to the exact point in space because of at least two other factors, the perihelion precession and the obliquity of the ecliptic. Simply put, The Sun appears (as viewed from the earth) to move backward through the stars at the rate of about 1 degree every 72 years.****Key numbers of Babylonian-Sumerian mathematics (including the sixty-based system still being used) were derived from astronomical observations, and yield the traditional estimate of precession: 108 x 4 x 60 =****25,920 years.****The Cycle of the Precession was divided into twelve parts of 2200 years and related to the Zodiac. With every movement into a new part of the Zodiac, society was completely reorganized to the theme of the Sign of the Zodiac.****The huge precessional clock does not stop.****The axis of the earth slowly changes its orientation in space - either directly due to a precession of earth's polar axis or indirectly as a result of our entire solar system moving around a point x in space.****Earth is like a gyroscope. Earth is suppose to precess opposite to its direction of rotation. The period of its complete precession cycle is said to take about 25,800 years.****During this Great Year time period, Earth supposedly goes through one retrograding rotation relative to the inertial system of the fixed stars. An additional time interval of one year of about 365 days must occur simultaneously. But since this time interval cannot be substantiated by actual time measurement, the theory of the Earth's precession does not have a proven scientific foundation. But it was accepted by all cultures in antiquity.***Hamlet's Mill*describes a cycle within**the precessional shifting of the crossroads of ecliptic and equator****. An archetypal triangle, a Grand Trine, is associated with Precession: the Trigon of the Great Conjunction. The revolution of that Trigon is built up by "Great Conjunctions" of Saturn and Jupiter. This Trigon of Great Conjunctions is an instrument by which one could "narrow down" the almost imperceptible tempo of the Precession. To move through the whole zodiac, one of the angles of the Trigon need approximately 3 x 794 1/3 = 2383 years. That comes tolerably near to one double-hour of the greatest "day" of the Precession of 25,900 years.****The Zodiac moved from Virgo to Leo (10.000 BC), from Cancer (8700 BC, Scarab, Kheper) to Gemini (6593 BC, Twins, the Two Kingsdoms), From Taurus (Bull, 4435 BC) to Aries (Ram, 2277 BC, Shepherd, Sheep, Khnum) and from Aries to Pisces (Fish, 155 BC) and is now moving into Aquarius. The Story of Religion also moved with the Signs of the Zodiac.****A new zodiacal sign was termed to "rise" starting from the day of a great conjunction at the place of the "passage." Our own era, the Age of Pisces, started with a great conjunction in Pisces, in the year 6 B.C..****The identification of an "age" with a particular zodiac constellation is based on the sun's position during the vernal equinox. Before 2000 BC, the Sun could have been seen against the stars of the constellation of Taurus at the time of vernal equinox [had there been an eclipse]. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, on average every 2,160 years the Sun appears against the stars of a new constellation at vernal equinox. The current astrological age started when the equinox precessed into the constellation of Pisces, in about the year 150 BC, with the "Age of Aquarius" starting in AD 2600.****The myth of the Eternal Return is real. Precession takes roughly 26,000 years for a cycle about the ecliptic pole. The ecliptic North Pole corresponds to the Sun's North Pole. It is the pole of the path the Sun traces about the Earth in the course of the year. The placement of Draco focuses on the Sun, so spiritually the Dragon is associated with worship of the Sun.****Dragons that 'fought with the Sun' probably described the celestrial upheaval of large fearsome comets that streaked across the sky with their long tails. They appeared cyclically and broke up upon nearing the sun, some of which collided with Earth. Eclipses were also considered celestial battles between the dark and light.****In ancient times the cataclysmic forces of nature were personified as a great cosmic dragon or serpent.****Many ancient mythologies, and many god-like characters who appear in world myth, owe their existence to cosmic disasters that occurred in our solar system and which were witnessed by the inhabitants of the Earth. The cataclysmic events (involving comets and exploding planets) were permanently archived in what we nowadays refer to as the "collective unconscious."****Dragons were deeply etched in the racial memory of all mankind. Draco in Latin, the Egyptians called the constellation Tanem, the Hebrews called it Tannim, and in Aramaic its name is Tannin.****The ancient root,***Tan-*has been wrongly translated in the Bible as whale instead of dragon.**Early astrologers believed that when a comet was located in the head of the dragon, that poison was scattered all over the world.****Decoding the sky meant connecting the dots of the starry constellations, making star maps, reproducing that heaven on earth in the form of sacred sites, and embodying it in sacred royal lineage. The most ancient lines are symbolically related to the circumpolar constellation Draco, the great Dragon or "crooked" Serpent (Babylonian***Sir*).**The winged serpent was a symbol of the Gods of Egypt, Phoenicia, China, Persia, and Hindustan.****The serpent is set in the symbol of the "Chalice," or downward pointing triangle, that has long been a womb symbol. In the Far East, this symbol is known as the Yoni. The word "one" derives from this word denoting the female womb. The title-page of THE DRAGON BOOK mimics this Dragon in the downward-pointing triangle and describes magic, treasures and immortality. Ritual swallowing by the snake in the underworld led to the symbolic return to the embryonic state, rejuvination and rebirth in the mystery schools.****Roughly 3000 BC, the heavens revolved around the Great Dragon, and so did earthly civilization. Dragons became synonymous with immortality because the celestial dragon was exempt from the cycle of time and because the dragon lineage did not die but was preserved in the noble bloodline. The point of circumpolar rotation, inhabited by the star Thuban or not, became the "Eye of the Dragon". The stars were the witnesses or watchers - the seers. Egyptian rulers wore the Uraeus serpent (Wadjet) as their crown symbol of sovereignty (serpent of life), a link to the celestial Ouroborous.****The serpent cult worshiped the esoteric or inner sun, manifested as the biophotonic energy body.****This inner light is the realization of our own connection to the greater universe, of our own inner balance and our own growth toward attune to or resonance with the world around us. It is also the part of ourselves and our outer world, which gives life, sustains and gives growth. The dragon and serpent cults inspired megalithic monuments, global dragon and serpent mounds. The most ancient initiatory and healing symbols, the circumpunct, a dot within a circle and/or a cross within a circle symbolize this inner sun.****The Great Year cycle of Precession culminates in 2012.****The Galactic Center according the Maya and many other cosmic cultures is where time and space have collapsed totally and do not exist. We are aligning with the Galactic Center as we complete the Great Cycle. This alignment is called the second coming of the Christ. It is the Alchemical Wedding. It is when we become One with the higher vibrations from the Galactic Center. Now, as we complete this great cycle, we move through the Galactic Centre beyond birth and death into a higher dimensional being.****The symbol of the Ouroboros, the serpent that eats its own tail, refers to a serpent of light residing in the Milky Way. In Hindu myth Vishnu is seen lying on the hundred headed serpent Ananta Sesha. Vishnu represents the center of the Milky Way out of which the consciousness of all that exists emanates.**

Ananta Sesha, the giant primordial serpent, is the life giving dragon who supports Vishnu on the surface of the Milky Ocean of Immortal life. Vishnu, in human form is seen dreaming as a lotus grows from his navel on which Brahma, the creator is seated. This is a metaphor for the creation of stars and planets from the center of the galaxy.Ananta Sesha, the giant primordial serpent, is the life giving dragon who supports Vishnu on the surface of the Milky Ocean of Immortal life. Vishnu, in human form is seen dreaming as a lotus grows from his navel on which Brahma, the creator is seated. This is a metaphor for the creation of stars and planets from the center of the galaxy.

**AS ABOVE, SO BELOW: The Fractal Field of Resonating Potential****The narrative of the Sky had to be a “***rotating*” cyclic narrative because the sky was in constant cyclic motion. Ancient tradition states that heavenly locations had earthly counterparts (”**As Above, so Below“). The next step was to project this Narrative on the Sky using highly visible stars as a connection point. In the last step the Sky was projected unto Earth again.****Megaliths (”***giant standing stones*“, “*menhirs*“) and related constructions such as cairns and dolmens (chambers of stone), tumuli and barrows (ancient earthworks) and henges and circles were built by ancient man for purposes of Astronomy and Geodetics. Anyone having knowledge of the heavenly stars could thus find his way around on Earth by means of the megaliths, which served both as boundaries and landmarks.**When we measure the Earth in Egypt the number 26,400 miles appears which is the number of Years the Precession of the Equinox takes. A mile in distance upon the earth equals one year of precession, and one degree of distance on the earth, a 360th part of the circumference equals 72 years of Precession of Equinox. In Precession solar and galactic intentionality align.****The ancient Scientists not only created a highly advanced Navigation System and a Calendar, they also Mapped this System to a metric system of Earth. This System was just like the Calendar and the Navigation System implemented all over the world. To Rule efficiently you have to Standardize to predict the future.****One of most important Cycles is called the Etanic Cycle In a 780 year period the earth wobbles above the equator to a max of (4) degrees, then wobbles back below the equator to a max of (4) degrees. The full cycle take 1560 years. The 1560 year wobble can be broken down into the four quadrants of 390 years, and to the Mayan Calendar eighth part of 130 years.****The constant movement by Earth above and below the equator shifts the exposure of different areas of the planet to annual sun light. It also generates a lot of Tectonic Stress (Earth Quake Storms) from the planet’s core to its surface.****The Etanic Cycle has a huge influence on the Climate. Climate changes shift populations of humans and herds all around the Globe. To Rule the World you have to know when the Big Troubles are Coming.****The year 3117 BC was a special year not only because of the special alignment of Sun and Earth. There are 5280 Feet to the Mile. This number is 0ne fifth of the duration of the Precession Cycle. The periodicity of the well-known Economic Kondratiev Cycle is 5280/100****=**52.8 years.**Synchromystic****The number Five is a very important number. It is the number of the Pentangle and the Quintessence (Chi, Ether, Prana). Five is the Number of the Center. The Ancient Scientists divided the Precession Cycle into Five Stages. The Stage that started at 3117 BC was the last Phase before a new Golden Age would start. It was the Fifth Age of the Precession.****3117 BC was the start of Human Civilization. It was the time of the Establishment of the Old Kingdom, the first Writing in Sumeria, and the first Stellar Observation Systems. The Hindu Kali Yuga (***‘The Dark Age*“) begins at this time as well.**A***total eclipse*occurs when the Sun is completely obscured by the Moon. The intensely bright disk of the Sun is replaced by the dark silhouette of the Moon, and the much fainter corona is visible. During any one eclipse, totality is visible only from at most a narrow track on the surface of the Earth.**An***annular eclipse*occurs when the Sun and Moon are exactly in line, but the apparent size of the Moon is smaller than that of the Sun. The Sun appears as a very bright ring, or annulus, surrounding the outline of the Moon.

Ancient Metrology

by Iona Miller

THE AURIC KEY: SYNDEX I and SYNDEX II by Iona Miller and Robert "Bob" Marshall

But are numbers really abstract entities existing independently of the human mind? What is the nature of mathematical truth, and how is it translated into mathematical knowledge? If it exists in another "ideal world", how can we know anything at all about the subject-matter of mathematics? What collective criteria determines the nature, terms and rules of this world?

In the Jungian view, numbers (like other archetypes of the collective unconscious) are contents and patterns of behavior which are not personally acquired in experience but are inborn. The Platonic Forms are the objects of knowledge, which is regarded as innate. They can emerge dynamically as well as imagistically. The essential nature of the Forms is dual: unity and multiplicity, finitude and infinitude. "The One" is the origin of Forms in the same way that the psyche is the origin of the archetypes.

Because they form a primary conceptual language, numbers have heavily influenced the development of culture, philosophy and myth as well as sciences such as cosmology. 'Number is All' was the Pythagorean motto. Numbers were symbols representing cosmic principles. The whole philosophy of numbers came from distinctions created by the primordial division of the One into multiplicity. Because of their archetypal essence, their mode of articulation is essentially mythic and radically symbolic.

Mathematics, by the very nature of its method, is an essentially Platonic pursuit. Mathematicians treat the objects of their investigations as real objects in a hypostasized space,

We use numbers casually and rigorously as a language to order space. Since ancient times, their archetypal dynamics have been the foundation of philosophy, religious, and artistic thought. Patterns of dynamic energy in numbers reflect patterns of nature--the order of the universe. Whether they actually

Are numbers and functions the inventions of mathematicians, or do they exist independently of us? Just because a mathematical object can possibly exist doesn't mean it actually

When working in geometry, a mathematician does not investigate the relations of real things. He investigates some idealized, fixed notion of these relations. This notion is subjectively treated as "reality" without any fundamental reality behind it. It can, therefore, arguably be considered art as well as science. In practice, mathematicians jump to conclusions, and after the jump has been made begin the labor of proving the theorem or constructing a coherent theory. This involves subconscious reasoning, tenacity, focus, judgement, concentration, elementary intuition, free association, and conceptual visualization.

Some say mathematics is a purely human construct, an artifact of our nervous systems and culture. Others attest that even chimps and infants are hard-wired by evolution for arithmetic to deal with real objects in the real world. Numbers are not Platonic ideals but neurological creations. Integers, like colors, are artifacts of our sensory processing mechanisms.

Dehaene traces the arithmetical model to the inferior parietal cortex. This poorly understood location is where visual, auditory, tactile signals, and language processing converge. Mathematics, or at least mathematical notation, is another human languge. It also appears to be the language of nature, and therefore physical reality. Of the infinite range of mathematical creations, scientists keep those that help explain and predict reality.

The concept of natural numbers is a fixed model, an idealization of quantitative relations which ends in stable concepts of numbers. The dynamics of those numbers are described in number theory. Number theory, one of the oldest branches of pure mathematics, concerns elementary properties of primes, divisibility among integers, the existence of greatest common divisors, the study of specific families of numbers, simple recurrent relations, factorization, and more. Syndex addresses these aspects with easy to state conjectures which can be understood and observed in graphics without any particular mathematical training.

Mathematical Platonism concerns the investigation of fixed or self-contained models. The Platonic Idea or Form is essentially an unchangeable form. As symbols, numbers express the particular in the universal, the eternal in the finite. They express the ordering function of their archetypal nature. The Neoplatonists assumed an a priori structure of knowledge grounded in archetypal forms and directed toward a unification of the ultimate principle of "the One" with the diverse phenomena of "the Many." This could also apply to the number field.

Ancient astronomers saw symbols in the stars; the circle, triangle, square, parallelogram. The Spring constellation of

which is opposite

by Iona Miller

**http://syndex1.iwarp.com**2*Syndex I & II*are about the spiritual and universal beauty of numbers. They reflect the order and beauty of nature, but also of psyche. According to Jung, number unifies the physical and psychic (as in "realm of the psyche", not fortunetelling) worlds through synchronicity. Jung's basic ideas about the unity of knowledge and existence are in principle synonymous with the Platonic tradition, alchemy, Qabala and Gnosticism. Plato treated the end product of the evolution of mathematical concepts, (a fixed system of idealized objects), as an independent beginning point of the evolution of the "world of things." This concrete form of philosophy was determined by the nature of Greek mathematics.**http://syndex2.iwarp.com****Ancient cultures and alphanumerics.****The Hindu divine numberword Om/108, is called the number of the Universe. The graphic enspiralment of the natural number continuum into a mandala or mandalog (based on 108 axes) forms a crucial tool for investigation of hidden properties of numbers. Multiples of 108 form the basis of Indian time measurement, the**Synchrograph C is a graphic spiral of rhythmic symmetries. On this number wheel, natural numbers are spiralled 60 times around a radial array of 108 increments to the number 6480. Contemplating the C-Graph revealed the Holotomic Sequence: 12, 24, 72, 360, 2520, 27720, 360360, 6126120, etc., created by prime number multiplexing, and the exemplary 9/11 wavecycle (a +4, -4 basewave).*Yugas*and Ages.**********PROTO-METROLOGY**

Earth’s Measure is the Golden Key to Precession

By Iona Miller, 2009

Earth’s Epochs

There is a lost wisdom whose traces are found in ancient natural sciences, including cosmology. The Precession of the Equinoxes is a measure of Earth’s rotational axis (celestial pole) in space. Earth moves around in its orbit and rotates on its axis. But that axis creates a third motion of the Earth, relative to the fixed stars. The stars move across the sky at the rate of about one degree per 72 years.

The modern measure of one such cyclic span or period is 25,771.5 years but there are many variables in the calculation. After one full cycle of 25,771.5 years, the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back where they started."

But other effects -- including wobble, torque, magnitude of the Earth’s tilt and gravitational forces of other heavenly bodies -- also slowly change the shape and orientation of the Earth's orbit. These, in combination with precession, create various cycles of slightly differing periods.

Written history does not encompass even one such cycle as mythological history is less than 10,000 years old. Metrology is perhaps 5000 years old but mankind has been systematically observing the sky for at least 50,000 years. Legendary numbers seem to have originated in Sumerian culture as the result of geodesic and cosmological measurements discovered millennia ago, in the mists of prehistory.

The Sumerians mythologized “divine” numbers as time portals. Metrology and chronology go together as soon as we try to take Earth’s measure in the cosmos. It appears the system was observed or discovered through simple arithmetic, rather than contrived. Precession was the ideal prototype, the vast cosmic standard by which all other things were measured.

Mankind has an inherent love of measuring which is the natural basis of metrology. It has pragmatic survival and social value. Ancient metrology is the science whose evidence is encoded and mirrored in the sacred dimensions of the Pyramids, Stonehenge, and other earthly monuments oriented to the heavens. The numerical code lies behind the layouts of temples and cities and systems of measuring time from megalithic Britain to China and even in the Americas. (Scherz)

Measurement was a sacred system of knowledge established in prehistory, based on observations of cosmic cycles. Standards of measure were framed upon universal principles of number and the geophysical dimensions of the ever-turning Earth. There is no starting nor ending point. Celestial time is virtually inconceivable without the Great Cycle.

Immense Movement

Precession is the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation, which, like a wobbling top, traces out a conical shape in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years as it maps the heavens. The Sumerian calendar was based on the 25,920 Precession cycles. The Platonic Year was based on the divine number 2160 (1080 x 2). Plato mentions another divine number in his Republic -- 5040 (2520 x 2).

12 x 2160 = 25920

20 x 108 = 2160

36 x 60 = 2160

2160 + 360 = 2520

2160 + 432 = 2592

The key to the comprehensive analysis of general number behavior is found in the concept of "circular unity." Circular unity is an idea demonstrated by the harmonious interaction of the first six numbers. SIX is the first perfect number, being the sum of its first three digits, or 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.

1 x 2 x 3 = 6; 62 = 36; 36 x 3 = 108; 362 =1296 x 2 = 2592.

The Precession of the Equinoxes was first noticed as a slow but steady slippage through the Zodiac of 1 degree every 72 years. A full cycle was a journey of Earth through all the signs of the Zodiac. The equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the motion of the Sun along the ecliptic.

To complete one cycle of the zodiac--a "Great" or Platonic Year--requires 25,920 years. Dividing this sum by 360 yields the number 432, the root of the mythological count of 432,000 years. However, it is not only mythological, or archetypal--it was discovered by centuries of controlled astronomical observation, even prior to written record-keeping.

Numerical Harmonics

Cosmology, horizon-based astronomy, astrology, architecture, navigation, geography, geometry, mathematics, timekeeping, writing, proportion in art, and musical notation were all related to numerical canon. The ancients encoded their knowledge of the world in their sacred monuments and texts as an esoteric code of numbers, formulas, and proportion.

There are cross-cultural links in units of measure related to sexagesimal fractions of meridian degree. All relate fractionally to the Sumerian cubit. Although no measuring devices survive from Sumeria, the varying values of the Sumerian cubit have been accurately established from the dimensions of buildings, the measurement of bricks, and from cuneiform tablets that record these dimensions.

The most widely acknowledged value of the cubit is taken from that of the half-cubit represented as a rule on the statue of Gudea from Lagash, and given as 248mm. The cubit usually divided sexagesimally into 30 fingers is at times divided into 24 fingers as in the rest of the ancient world. This 24th division of the Sumerian cubit is the Megalithic inch. Obviously this digit is the Sumerian value, 24 to that cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian and 40 to the Megalithic yard. Units were kept standard in the dimensions of permanent stone monuments. (Neal, 2003)

“The sacred Jewish cubit, that of Moses and Ezekiel, expressed as "a cubit and a hands breadth" refers to the royal Egyptian as the basic cubit. Since a hands breadth is 5 digits, the implication is that 5 such hands comprise the royal Egyptian and 6 the sacred Jewish, this digit is therefore the Megalithic "inch": 15 to the "common" Greek foot, 24 to the Sumerian cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian cubit, 30 to the sacred Jewish cubit and 40 to the Megalithic yard. There is little doubt that we are regarding a single organization of measurement in what has previously been viewed as quite separate systems.” (Neal)

Ancient religions had pronounced astrological elements, which have defined precessional ages from Taurus through Pisces, and the imminent age of Aquarius. Ancient state temples may have functioned as permanent repositories of standards of measures. Gods, (to whom the temples were dedicated) had characteristic numbers, from which they were indistinguishable.

The exemplar number, 108, is known as the number of the Universe. It also corresponds with the god Brahma, and the seed-syllable AUM or OM. Numbers expressed qualities, not just quantities. Prime numbers figure prominently in the measuring and numerical canons of ancient and modern times.

In the old beliefs, this code, (whose true source is lost in prehistoric antiquity), is always alleged to have a divine origin, from the gods or a god-like man. Lore relating to sacred words or phrases arose, because letters and numbers were interchangable or alphanumeric. The code arises naturally from the inherent structure of arithmetic. This golden code emphasized certain key numbers, which were seized upon by different cultures.

Ancient Metrics

Metrology was the basis for development of both philosophic and scientific attitudes. The divine order of the universe was the central idea of the ancient world, and all belief-systems were enmeshed with it. Metrology provided the foundation of the systematic rational vision of the world. Cosmic order embodied in metrology was the fundamental aspect of ancient thought. Number mysticism was the essential basis of most of their knowledge.

Of course, information about the Universe has always been there, but its availability is limited to those prepared to receive or decode it. Ancient cosmologies were not only models of the physical universe, but representations of a universal mathematical archetype. The numerical canon revealed correspondences between different orders of natural phenomena. Metrology included sacred units for measuring the Universe, units of time, space, weight, and mass (or volume).

Root Gauge

The ancient sacred units of measure come from the principle dimensions of the earth (geodesic or geodetic) and astronomical (or cosmological) constants, such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, and the orbital periods of the observable planets.

Land was measured in Mesopotamia and Egypt by the same “statute foot” we use today. The “geographic foot” is related to the length of a minute of arc at a latitude which corresponds to that found in lands such as northern Egypt. By definition, there are 6000 geographic feet in a nautical mile (one minute of latitude arc on the surface of the earth). 1/10 of a nautical mile is an ancient land measure called the "geographic stade"--600 geographic feet, or 606 (600 + 6) of our common feet. (Stecchini; Scherz)

Geography developed from metrology. Traders and navigators needed to calculate distances and time for travel. This link between measures of length and time united metrology and astronomy, and led to astronomical navigation. Ancient navigators used a sexigesimal method of dividing the horizon, using six (rather than four) cardinal directions.

Widening Gyre

Ancient linear measures expressed fractions of the earth's dimensions (polar diameter, circumference, radius, meridian circumference), generally in units of 12. Thus, we have 360 degrees of latitude, each of 60 minutes of 3600 seconds.

Cross-culturally, ancient units of measure relate proportionately to each other, because the old units (whether Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Chinese, etc.) represent fractions of the earth's dimensions. Russian archaeologist Bieliaev, points out that the same weights with the same subdivisions are found in early Rome and India of the third millennium B.C. He traced connecting links to Sumer and Egypt, and found the same units used in medieval Russia.

In ancient times, the Universe meant the observable Universe. For Pythagorean and Platonist thinkers, the patterns of numerical relationships which occur in the processes of arithmetic and geometry were considered the formative influences behind all of nature's phenomena. Numerical patterns were detected in the manifestations and dynamics of nature. Behind this is a philosophy of numbers which express universal relationships.

Although usually superceded by practical arithmetic, there is much to learn from the study of the relationship of number and form. The essence of all matter is dynamic relationships. Number is the 'first paradigm,' the basic ordering principle of nature.

Transient, Eternal or Cyclic?

Many so-called "key numbers of the Solar System" are involved, because key numbers have always stood out for their unique properties. The ancients discovered them through aeons of empirical observations of cosmic cycles. They were capable of observing long-term effects, (such as the precessional cycle), with horizon-based astronomy. Their observations of the divine order were central to the core of their civilizations.

Ancient metrology does provide a clue to what numbers might be interesting to investigate.

#108 as the Hindu number of the Universe is a circular totality which encodes the structure of Epochs or Divine Ages. Since the incremental 'numbers of the ages' are multiples of #108, when enspiralled along 108 axes, the characters 0 - 6480 all align along the zero/108 axis -- they naturally share the same neighborhood when displayed as "Mandalogs" or "Holotomes". (Miller & Marshall, Syndex I)Earth’s Measure is the Golden Key to Precession

By Iona Miller, 2009

Earth’s Epochs

There is a lost wisdom whose traces are found in ancient natural sciences, including cosmology. The Precession of the Equinoxes is a measure of Earth’s rotational axis (celestial pole) in space. Earth moves around in its orbit and rotates on its axis. But that axis creates a third motion of the Earth, relative to the fixed stars. The stars move across the sky at the rate of about one degree per 72 years.

The modern measure of one such cyclic span or period is 25,771.5 years but there are many variables in the calculation. After one full cycle of 25,771.5 years, the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back where they started."

But other effects -- including wobble, torque, magnitude of the Earth’s tilt and gravitational forces of other heavenly bodies -- also slowly change the shape and orientation of the Earth's orbit. These, in combination with precession, create various cycles of slightly differing periods.

Written history does not encompass even one such cycle as mythological history is less than 10,000 years old. Metrology is perhaps 5000 years old but mankind has been systematically observing the sky for at least 50,000 years. Legendary numbers seem to have originated in Sumerian culture as the result of geodesic and cosmological measurements discovered millennia ago, in the mists of prehistory.

The Sumerians mythologized “divine” numbers as time portals. Metrology and chronology go together as soon as we try to take Earth’s measure in the cosmos. It appears the system was observed or discovered through simple arithmetic, rather than contrived. Precession was the ideal prototype, the vast cosmic standard by which all other things were measured.

Mankind has an inherent love of measuring which is the natural basis of metrology. It has pragmatic survival and social value. Ancient metrology is the science whose evidence is encoded and mirrored in the sacred dimensions of the Pyramids, Stonehenge, and other earthly monuments oriented to the heavens. The numerical code lies behind the layouts of temples and cities and systems of measuring time from megalithic Britain to China and even in the Americas. (Scherz)

Measurement was a sacred system of knowledge established in prehistory, based on observations of cosmic cycles. Standards of measure were framed upon universal principles of number and the geophysical dimensions of the ever-turning Earth. There is no starting nor ending point. Celestial time is virtually inconceivable without the Great Cycle.

Immense Movement

Precession is the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation, which, like a wobbling top, traces out a conical shape in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years as it maps the heavens. The Sumerian calendar was based on the 25,920 Precession cycles. The Platonic Year was based on the divine number 2160 (1080 x 2). Plato mentions another divine number in his Republic -- 5040 (2520 x 2).

12 x 2160 = 25920

20 x 108 = 2160

36 x 60 = 2160

2160 + 360 = 2520

2160 + 432 = 2592

The key to the comprehensive analysis of general number behavior is found in the concept of "circular unity." Circular unity is an idea demonstrated by the harmonious interaction of the first six numbers. SIX is the first perfect number, being the sum of its first three digits, or 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.

1 x 2 x 3 = 6; 62 = 36; 36 x 3 = 108; 362 =1296 x 2 = 2592.

The Precession of the Equinoxes was first noticed as a slow but steady slippage through the Zodiac of 1 degree every 72 years. A full cycle was a journey of Earth through all the signs of the Zodiac. The equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the motion of the Sun along the ecliptic.

To complete one cycle of the zodiac--a "Great" or Platonic Year--requires 25,920 years. Dividing this sum by 360 yields the number 432, the root of the mythological count of 432,000 years. However, it is not only mythological, or archetypal--it was discovered by centuries of controlled astronomical observation, even prior to written record-keeping.

Numerical Harmonics

Cosmology, horizon-based astronomy, astrology, architecture, navigation, geography, geometry, mathematics, timekeeping, writing, proportion in art, and musical notation were all related to numerical canon. The ancients encoded their knowledge of the world in their sacred monuments and texts as an esoteric code of numbers, formulas, and proportion.

There are cross-cultural links in units of measure related to sexagesimal fractions of meridian degree. All relate fractionally to the Sumerian cubit. Although no measuring devices survive from Sumeria, the varying values of the Sumerian cubit have been accurately established from the dimensions of buildings, the measurement of bricks, and from cuneiform tablets that record these dimensions.

The most widely acknowledged value of the cubit is taken from that of the half-cubit represented as a rule on the statue of Gudea from Lagash, and given as 248mm. The cubit usually divided sexagesimally into 30 fingers is at times divided into 24 fingers as in the rest of the ancient world. This 24th division of the Sumerian cubit is the Megalithic inch. Obviously this digit is the Sumerian value, 24 to that cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian and 40 to the Megalithic yard. Units were kept standard in the dimensions of permanent stone monuments. (Neal, 2003)

“The sacred Jewish cubit, that of Moses and Ezekiel, expressed as "a cubit and a hands breadth" refers to the royal Egyptian as the basic cubit. Since a hands breadth is 5 digits, the implication is that 5 such hands comprise the royal Egyptian and 6 the sacred Jewish, this digit is therefore the Megalithic "inch": 15 to the "common" Greek foot, 24 to the Sumerian cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian cubit, 30 to the sacred Jewish cubit and 40 to the Megalithic yard. There is little doubt that we are regarding a single organization of measurement in what has previously been viewed as quite separate systems.” (Neal)

Ancient religions had pronounced astrological elements, which have defined precessional ages from Taurus through Pisces, and the imminent age of Aquarius. Ancient state temples may have functioned as permanent repositories of standards of measures. Gods, (to whom the temples were dedicated) had characteristic numbers, from which they were indistinguishable.

The exemplar number, 108, is known as the number of the Universe. It also corresponds with the god Brahma, and the seed-syllable AUM or OM. Numbers expressed qualities, not just quantities. Prime numbers figure prominently in the measuring and numerical canons of ancient and modern times.

In the old beliefs, this code, (whose true source is lost in prehistoric antiquity), is always alleged to have a divine origin, from the gods or a god-like man. Lore relating to sacred words or phrases arose, because letters and numbers were interchangable or alphanumeric. The code arises naturally from the inherent structure of arithmetic. This golden code emphasized certain key numbers, which were seized upon by different cultures.

Ancient Metrics

Metrology was the basis for development of both philosophic and scientific attitudes. The divine order of the universe was the central idea of the ancient world, and all belief-systems were enmeshed with it. Metrology provided the foundation of the systematic rational vision of the world. Cosmic order embodied in metrology was the fundamental aspect of ancient thought. Number mysticism was the essential basis of most of their knowledge.

Of course, information about the Universe has always been there, but its availability is limited to those prepared to receive or decode it. Ancient cosmologies were not only models of the physical universe, but representations of a universal mathematical archetype. The numerical canon revealed correspondences between different orders of natural phenomena. Metrology included sacred units for measuring the Universe, units of time, space, weight, and mass (or volume).

Root Gauge

The ancient sacred units of measure come from the principle dimensions of the earth (geodesic or geodetic) and astronomical (or cosmological) constants, such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, and the orbital periods of the observable planets.

Land was measured in Mesopotamia and Egypt by the same “statute foot” we use today. The “geographic foot” is related to the length of a minute of arc at a latitude which corresponds to that found in lands such as northern Egypt. By definition, there are 6000 geographic feet in a nautical mile (one minute of latitude arc on the surface of the earth). 1/10 of a nautical mile is an ancient land measure called the "geographic stade"--600 geographic feet, or 606 (600 + 6) of our common feet. (Stecchini; Scherz)

Geography developed from metrology. Traders and navigators needed to calculate distances and time for travel. This link between measures of length and time united metrology and astronomy, and led to astronomical navigation. Ancient navigators used a sexigesimal method of dividing the horizon, using six (rather than four) cardinal directions.

Widening Gyre

Ancient linear measures expressed fractions of the earth's dimensions (polar diameter, circumference, radius, meridian circumference), generally in units of 12. Thus, we have 360 degrees of latitude, each of 60 minutes of 3600 seconds.

Cross-culturally, ancient units of measure relate proportionately to each other, because the old units (whether Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Chinese, etc.) represent fractions of the earth's dimensions. Russian archaeologist Bieliaev, points out that the same weights with the same subdivisions are found in early Rome and India of the third millennium B.C. He traced connecting links to Sumer and Egypt, and found the same units used in medieval Russia.

In ancient times, the Universe meant the observable Universe. For Pythagorean and Platonist thinkers, the patterns of numerical relationships which occur in the processes of arithmetic and geometry were considered the formative influences behind all of nature's phenomena. Numerical patterns were detected in the manifestations and dynamics of nature. Behind this is a philosophy of numbers which express universal relationships.

Although usually superceded by practical arithmetic, there is much to learn from the study of the relationship of number and form. The essence of all matter is dynamic relationships. Number is the 'first paradigm,' the basic ordering principle of nature.

Transient, Eternal or Cyclic?

Many so-called "key numbers of the Solar System" are involved, because key numbers have always stood out for their unique properties. The ancients discovered them through aeons of empirical observations of cosmic cycles. They were capable of observing long-term effects, (such as the precessional cycle), with horizon-based astronomy. Their observations of the divine order were central to the core of their civilizations.

Ancient metrology does provide a clue to what numbers might be interesting to investigate.

*Syndex II*(Miller) follows the clues by using direct observation of natural number behavior displayed in a spiral, rather than interpretation of what is there to be seen. Certain numbers graphically call attention to themselves. It requires no ancient, alien, or mystical source, no occult doctrine or arcane secret, no ideology. It predicts no "end time." It is simply a graphically revealed "truth."#108 as the Hindu number of the Universe is a circular totality which encodes the structure of Epochs or Divine Ages. Since the incremental 'numbers of the ages' are multiples of #108, when enspiralled along 108 axes, the characters 0 - 6480 all align along the zero/108 axis -- they naturally share the same neighborhood when displayed as "Mandalogs" or "Holotomes". (Miller & Marshall, Syndex I)

**By starting with 6 (the first perfect number) and multiplying by the primes in their natural order, we get the sequence 12, 24, 72, 360, 2520, 27720, 360360, 6126120, etc. Each of these numbers forms a geometrical entity, a circular unity, (Holotome). These numbers just happen to be the exact sequence of minimal sums that accomodate the maximal amount of factors of division. Their synergetic qualities have remained unnoticed in classical number theory.****The synchrographic structure of the two ancient Hindu modules of circular unity disclose that the Yugas fall into a perfect tertiary symmetry. The Ages assume a perfect quadric symmetry when spiralled along 108 axes of a number field, array, or matrix. The final number of this synchrograph is 6480. The number of zeros at the end of any astronomical Hindu number is nearly arbitrary. The glyph unifies the two ancient systems.**

Sacred Measurement

In antiquity, knowledge of an alphanumerical canon spread throughout the Middle East, to Greece and India, back to the Moslem Empire, and from there into medieval Europe to catalyze the Renaissance. India raised mathematics to a high art with its most revered number 108, the number of OM and the Universe, the number of Brahma.

This number formed the basis of the Ages and Yugas, which are all multiples of this sacred numberword. Yugas include 432, 864, 1296, 1728 and add to 4320. Ages include 648, 1296, 1944, 2592 and add to 6480.

108 is itself 3 x 36--part of the Sumerian sar, 3600, also dubbed the number of the Universe, a unit of Divine Time, a year of the gods (3,600 earth-years). The number of zeros tacked on the end of these cosmological numbers is almost irrelevant, and merely emphasizes their vast importance.

Since 108 is 3 x 36 and both systems mutually include the square of 36 (1296), it becomes evident that the classic 360 degree circular unity is the common denominator of these separate systems (360 degrees of 60 minutes or 3600 seconds each).

According to Neugebauer (1952), "the division of the circumference of a circle into 360 parts originated in Babylonian astronomy of the last centuries B.C. The sexagesimal number system as such is many centuries older and has nothing to do with astronomical concepts."

However, in a far newer work, Sumerian scholar Zecharia Sitchen (1993) differs in opinion, attributing both mathematical astronomy and 360 circular unity to the Sumerians, based on his own cuneiform translations. He also refers to "the role that the key number 12 played in Sumerian science," and the "celestial 72," which comes from the precessional shift of 1 degree. He notes that 120 sars equals 432,000 earth-years. This is the number of the Great Yuga.

The key to Sumerian metrology is not as simple as the sexigesimal 6 x 60 = 360. Even in Sumeria, the sexigesimal system (60-division) was only applied in strictly mathematical and astronomical contexts. The sexagesimal numerical system had a decimal substratum (36 x 10 = 360). In other matters they used 24-division, 12-division, 10-division, and 2-division.

The real key involves the sequence in which prime numbers naturally occur in the baseten continuum. This is demonstated by multipling the third and fourth Holotomes together: 72 x 360 = 25920, a number given for the Precession of the Equinoxes in Sumerian cuneiform records. Clearly, this number relates directly to Yugas and Ages.

72 x 36 = 25920 divided by 2 = 12960;

divided by 3 = 8640

by 4 = 6480; by 6 = 4320

72 + 360 = 432

Contemplation of the numberwheel 108 discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." 864 is 12 x 72, holotomes A and C; 1728 is 24 x 72, holotomes B and C.

Both systems share 362 = 1296.

Mathematical Wisdom

Contemplation of this number wheel discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." The key numbers of ancient metrology and the Holotomic Sequence are found in positions of perfect symmetry (such as the quadratic array of the four-digit palindromic sequence: 1881, 2772, 3663, 4554) where only chaos exists in classical number theory. Nature's behaviors coincide with the most crucial divisions of the synergetic continuum of baseten number.

The main thread of the number concept in the crossroads cultures passed from Sumeria-Akkadia-Babylonia to Phoenicia to Hellenistic (and Hebrew), to Indian to Islamic to European cultures. Key numbers, cosmic cycles, and divine numbers permeate the number concepts of all these cultures. The Greeks and Hebrews had alphanumeric systems which developed into numerology and numberword mysticism.

Number mystics from the Pythagoreans onward considered number 'one' as the Infinite God, the First Cause, the One who transcends all multiplicity. To the Greeks, numbers were divine concepts, ideas in the mind the god who had fashioned the world. God was a great mathematician. In the Hebrew Qabala, the world is made with numbers and letters. In more accurate terms, the characters representing manifestation were alphanumeric.

The SEFIR YETZIRAH, the Book of Creation or Formation (300-600 AD) describes how God created the manifest universe by means of letters and numbers which are the foundation of all things. The letters are part of 'one body,' the alphabet which is an extension of God's own being. All created things, made by means of the letters, are also parts of the one body which is God.

True being for the Hebrew is the 'word,' dabhar, which comprises all Hebraic realities: word, deed, and concrete object. Non-being, nothing (no thing) is signified correspondingly by 'not word,' lo dabhar.

In European magical tradition, the most important of all alphanumeric alphabets is the Hebrew which had 22 letters, all of which were consonants. Vowels were inferred from context Contemplation (theory) and application (practice) is the mystical tradition of Qabala. In this alphabet there are no vowels (our a,e,i,o, and u) represented. The same is true of the older Phoenician (Canaanite) alphabet, from which our own alphabet is descended--by way of the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin alphabets.

All over the ancient orient, in Assyria and Babylonia, as well as Egypt, the word and particularly the word of God, was not only nor even primarily an expression of thought; it was a mighty and dynamic force. The Assyrians and Babylonians conceived of the divine word under the image of a physical-cosmic power.

In Egypt, the power of creating and sustaining everything was traced back to the divine word, the ever-active fluid or ethereal divine substance proceeding out of the mouth of divinity. For example, in Memphis, Ptah is the Creator of the world. The specific organ of creation is 'the mouth which named all things.'

There is an ancient code of numbers and proportion based on metrological standards of measure. Such constants as astronomical Precession, and geodetic measures such as polar diameter provided the basic context. Fractions of the earth's principle dimensions mirrored numerical patterns in the appearance and movement of nature.

These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar. Earlier measures of astronomy, astrology, and cosmology were usually in units of 12, as were various ancient units of measurement of time.

Constants of Nature

Mankind counted days and the changing of the moon and seasons for millennia before recorded history. As early as 3760 BC, the Sumerians created a lunar calendar. By 2800 B.C., they had worked our a cycle of 19 years which kept it synchronized with the solar year and seasons. Certain years had 12 lunar months, while others had thirteen. This lunar calendar was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Greeks and Jews. The Nippur calendar is still the basis of Jewish religious ceremonies. The Hebrew year in 2009 is 5769.

Sumerian astronomy included the concept of "deep time," as recounted in the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Creation. Ancient texts known as the Sumerian King Lists describe the settling of the divine Anunnaki on Earth before the deluge. They list the governorships of the first 10 leaders which lasted a total of 120 sars, or 432,000 Earth-years.

This is a direct source for divine eras in Hindu lore, but they expand the vastness to an overall time span of 4,320,000, and then to a Divine Year or Day of Lord Brahma--4,320,000,000--a thousandfold great yugas. The Sumerian formula is echoed in the Hindu traditions.Sacred Measurement

In antiquity, knowledge of an alphanumerical canon spread throughout the Middle East, to Greece and India, back to the Moslem Empire, and from there into medieval Europe to catalyze the Renaissance. India raised mathematics to a high art with its most revered number 108, the number of OM and the Universe, the number of Brahma.

This number formed the basis of the Ages and Yugas, which are all multiples of this sacred numberword. Yugas include 432, 864, 1296, 1728 and add to 4320. Ages include 648, 1296, 1944, 2592 and add to 6480.

108 is itself 3 x 36--part of the Sumerian sar, 3600, also dubbed the number of the Universe, a unit of Divine Time, a year of the gods (3,600 earth-years). The number of zeros tacked on the end of these cosmological numbers is almost irrelevant, and merely emphasizes their vast importance.

Since 108 is 3 x 36 and both systems mutually include the square of 36 (1296), it becomes evident that the classic 360 degree circular unity is the common denominator of these separate systems (360 degrees of 60 minutes or 3600 seconds each).

According to Neugebauer (1952), "the division of the circumference of a circle into 360 parts originated in Babylonian astronomy of the last centuries B.C. The sexagesimal number system as such is many centuries older and has nothing to do with astronomical concepts."

However, in a far newer work, Sumerian scholar Zecharia Sitchen (1993) differs in opinion, attributing both mathematical astronomy and 360 circular unity to the Sumerians, based on his own cuneiform translations. He also refers to "the role that the key number 12 played in Sumerian science," and the "celestial 72," which comes from the precessional shift of 1 degree. He notes that 120 sars equals 432,000 earth-years. This is the number of the Great Yuga.

The key to Sumerian metrology is not as simple as the sexigesimal 6 x 60 = 360. Even in Sumeria, the sexigesimal system (60-division) was only applied in strictly mathematical and astronomical contexts. The sexagesimal numerical system had a decimal substratum (36 x 10 = 360). In other matters they used 24-division, 12-division, 10-division, and 2-division.

The real key involves the sequence in which prime numbers naturally occur in the baseten continuum. This is demonstated by multipling the third and fourth Holotomes together: 72 x 360 = 25920, a number given for the Precession of the Equinoxes in Sumerian cuneiform records. Clearly, this number relates directly to Yugas and Ages.

72 x 36 = 25920 divided by 2 = 12960;

divided by 3 = 8640

by 4 = 6480; by 6 = 4320

72 + 360 = 432

Contemplation of the numberwheel 108 discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." 864 is 12 x 72, holotomes A and C; 1728 is 24 x 72, holotomes B and C.

Both systems share 362 = 1296.

Mathematical Wisdom

Contemplation of this number wheel discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." The key numbers of ancient metrology and the Holotomic Sequence are found in positions of perfect symmetry (such as the quadratic array of the four-digit palindromic sequence: 1881, 2772, 3663, 4554) where only chaos exists in classical number theory. Nature's behaviors coincide with the most crucial divisions of the synergetic continuum of baseten number.

The main thread of the number concept in the crossroads cultures passed from Sumeria-Akkadia-Babylonia to Phoenicia to Hellenistic (and Hebrew), to Indian to Islamic to European cultures. Key numbers, cosmic cycles, and divine numbers permeate the number concepts of all these cultures. The Greeks and Hebrews had alphanumeric systems which developed into numerology and numberword mysticism.

Number mystics from the Pythagoreans onward considered number 'one' as the Infinite God, the First Cause, the One who transcends all multiplicity. To the Greeks, numbers were divine concepts, ideas in the mind the god who had fashioned the world. God was a great mathematician. In the Hebrew Qabala, the world is made with numbers and letters. In more accurate terms, the characters representing manifestation were alphanumeric.

The SEFIR YETZIRAH, the Book of Creation or Formation (300-600 AD) describes how God created the manifest universe by means of letters and numbers which are the foundation of all things. The letters are part of 'one body,' the alphabet which is an extension of God's own being. All created things, made by means of the letters, are also parts of the one body which is God.

True being for the Hebrew is the 'word,' dabhar, which comprises all Hebraic realities: word, deed, and concrete object. Non-being, nothing (no thing) is signified correspondingly by 'not word,' lo dabhar.

In European magical tradition, the most important of all alphanumeric alphabets is the Hebrew which had 22 letters, all of which were consonants. Vowels were inferred from context Contemplation (theory) and application (practice) is the mystical tradition of Qabala. In this alphabet there are no vowels (our a,e,i,o, and u) represented. The same is true of the older Phoenician (Canaanite) alphabet, from which our own alphabet is descended--by way of the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin alphabets.

All over the ancient orient, in Assyria and Babylonia, as well as Egypt, the word and particularly the word of God, was not only nor even primarily an expression of thought; it was a mighty and dynamic force. The Assyrians and Babylonians conceived of the divine word under the image of a physical-cosmic power.

In Egypt, the power of creating and sustaining everything was traced back to the divine word, the ever-active fluid or ethereal divine substance proceeding out of the mouth of divinity. For example, in Memphis, Ptah is the Creator of the world. The specific organ of creation is 'the mouth which named all things.'

There is an ancient code of numbers and proportion based on metrological standards of measure. Such constants as astronomical Precession, and geodetic measures such as polar diameter provided the basic context. Fractions of the earth's principle dimensions mirrored numerical patterns in the appearance and movement of nature.

These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar. Earlier measures of astronomy, astrology, and cosmology were usually in units of 12, as were various ancient units of measurement of time.

Constants of Nature

Mankind counted days and the changing of the moon and seasons for millennia before recorded history. As early as 3760 BC, the Sumerians created a lunar calendar. By 2800 B.C., they had worked our a cycle of 19 years which kept it synchronized with the solar year and seasons. Certain years had 12 lunar months, while others had thirteen. This lunar calendar was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Greeks and Jews. The Nippur calendar is still the basis of Jewish religious ceremonies. The Hebrew year in 2009 is 5769.

Sumerian astronomy included the concept of "deep time," as recounted in the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Creation. Ancient texts known as the Sumerian King Lists describe the settling of the divine Anunnaki on Earth before the deluge. They list the governorships of the first 10 leaders which lasted a total of 120 sars, or 432,000 Earth-years.

This is a direct source for divine eras in Hindu lore, but they expand the vastness to an overall time span of 4,320,000, and then to a Divine Year or Day of Lord Brahma--4,320,000,000--a thousandfold great yugas. The Sumerian formula is echoed in the Hindu traditions.

**From Sumeria comes the ubiquitous concept of a sky divided into 360 degrees of Latitude, 60 minutes of 3600 seconds; 12 month years beginning on Spring Equinox; 12 hours of day and night (2x12=24); 12 signs of the Zodiac, etc.**

Sumerian fractions were geared to the principle of repeated halving. Whole unit or natural fractions are important in arranging metrological units. The system based on 60 is evenly divisibly by 2,3,4,5,6,10,15, and 30 eliminating the frequent need of fractions. This naturally leads to grouping higher units in 12, 30, or 60. All these ratios occur in one or another of the parallel systems of units in Mesopotamian metrology. 4320 is one such number; so is 108000.

The Greek astronomers adopted this system, and so did their followers in India, the Islamic Empire, and Europe. Much of the mathematical knowledge commonly ascribed to the early Greek philosophers was already known to the Egyptians and Mesopotamians centuries before the rise of Greek civilization. However, the Greeks preserved and spread this knowledge. They were the first to consider mathematical concepts as abstractions not part of the real world, but of the idealized "sacred space" of the human mind.

There is some evidence of ancient India having direct contact with Sumeria around 2500 B.C. This is difficult to document, but not to deduce. However, nevertheless, Hindus contributed the final step to mathematical astronomy, namely, the use of the place value notation for the smaller decimal units. This is where we get our divisions of 60, 24, 12, and 2.

As we have shown elsewhere, these are closely allied to the HOLOTOMIC SEQUENCE: 12 - 24 - 72 - 360 - 2520, etc. These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar rooted in Precession cycles and natural number dynamics.

REFERENCES

Berriman, A.E. (1953) Historical Metrology

Knorr, W. R. (1985), The geometer and the archaeoastronomers: on the prehistoric origins of mathematics. Review of: Geometry and algebra in ancient civilizations [Springer, Berlin, 1983; MR: 85b:01001] by B. L. van der Waerden. British J. Hist. Sci. 18 (1985), no. 59, part 2, 197--212. SC: 01A10, MR: 87k:01003.

Michell, J. (1981), Ancient Metrology,

Miller, Iona and Robert Marshall (1998), SYNDEX II, A synergetic revisioning of number dynamics in light of ancient metrology and modern cosmography www.geocities.com/numeronom...dexii.html

Scherz, Old World Units of Measure Found in the Layout Geometry of Prehistoric Earthworks at Newark, Ohio By Dr James P Scherz www.midwesternepigraphic.org/scherz.html

Sitchen, Zecharia (1997), When Time Began, Avon; New York.Sumerian fractions were geared to the principle of repeated halving. Whole unit or natural fractions are important in arranging metrological units. The system based on 60 is evenly divisibly by 2,3,4,5,6,10,15, and 30 eliminating the frequent need of fractions. This naturally leads to grouping higher units in 12, 30, or 60. All these ratios occur in one or another of the parallel systems of units in Mesopotamian metrology. 4320 is one such number; so is 108000.

The Greek astronomers adopted this system, and so did their followers in India, the Islamic Empire, and Europe. Much of the mathematical knowledge commonly ascribed to the early Greek philosophers was already known to the Egyptians and Mesopotamians centuries before the rise of Greek civilization. However, the Greeks preserved and spread this knowledge. They were the first to consider mathematical concepts as abstractions not part of the real world, but of the idealized "sacred space" of the human mind.

There is some evidence of ancient India having direct contact with Sumeria around 2500 B.C. This is difficult to document, but not to deduce. However, nevertheless, Hindus contributed the final step to mathematical astronomy, namely, the use of the place value notation for the smaller decimal units. This is where we get our divisions of 60, 24, 12, and 2.

As we have shown elsewhere, these are closely allied to the HOLOTOMIC SEQUENCE: 12 - 24 - 72 - 360 - 2520, etc. These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar rooted in Precession cycles and natural number dynamics.

REFERENCES

Berriman, A.E. (1953) Historical Metrology

Knorr, W. R. (1985), The geometer and the archaeoastronomers: on the prehistoric origins of mathematics. Review of: Geometry and algebra in ancient civilizations [Springer, Berlin, 1983; MR: 85b:01001] by B. L. van der Waerden. British J. Hist. Sci. 18 (1985), no. 59, part 2, 197--212. SC: 01A10, MR: 87k:01003.

Michell, J. (1981), Ancient Metrology,

Miller, Iona and Robert Marshall (1998), SYNDEX II, A synergetic revisioning of number dynamics in light of ancient metrology and modern cosmography www.geocities.com/numeronom...dexii.html

Scherz, Old World Units of Measure Found in the Layout Geometry of Prehistoric Earthworks at Newark, Ohio By Dr James P Scherz www.midwesternepigraphic.org/scherz.html

Sitchen, Zecharia (1997), When Time Began, Avon; New York.

THE AURIC KEY: SYNDEX I and SYNDEX II by Iona Miller and Robert "Bob" Marshall

**are about the spiritual and universal beauty of numbers. They reflect the order and beauty of nature, but also of psyche. According to Jung, number unifies the physical and psychic (as in "realm of the psyche", not fortunetelling) worlds through synchronicity. Jung's basic ideas about the unity of knowledge and existence are in principle synonymous with the Platonic tradition, alchemy, Qabala and Gnosticism. Plato treated the end product of the evolution of mathematical concepts, (a fixed system of idealized objects), as an independent beginning point of the evolution of the "world of things." This concrete form of philosophy was determined by the nature of Greek mathematics. These philosophies seek to reconcile the actual condition with a hypothetical distant ideal, which expansively incorporates both personal and universal dimensions. It is an inward-oriented epistemology. By intuitive perception we can consciously reiterate the laws of Nature and mind which are equivalent to the archetypes themselves. Belief in the essential aspect of the mathematical as a real world, a "last reality" underlies the surprising efficiency of mathematics in the natural sciences and technology.***Syndex I & II*But are numbers really abstract entities existing independently of the human mind? What is the nature of mathematical truth, and how is it translated into mathematical knowledge? If it exists in another "ideal world", how can we know anything at all about the subject-matter of mathematics? What collective criteria determines the nature, terms and rules of this world?

In the Jungian view, numbers (like other archetypes of the collective unconscious) are contents and patterns of behavior which are not personally acquired in experience but are inborn. The Platonic Forms are the objects of knowledge, which is regarded as innate. They can emerge dynamically as well as imagistically. The essential nature of the Forms is dual: unity and multiplicity, finitude and infinitude. "The One" is the origin of Forms in the same way that the psyche is the origin of the archetypes.

Because they form a primary conceptual language, numbers have heavily influenced the development of culture, philosophy and myth as well as sciences such as cosmology. 'Number is All' was the Pythagorean motto. Numbers were symbols representing cosmic principles. The whole philosophy of numbers came from distinctions created by the primordial division of the One into multiplicity. Because of their archetypal essence, their mode of articulation is essentially mythic and radically symbolic.

Mathematics, by the very nature of its method, is an essentially Platonic pursuit. Mathematicians treat the objects of their investigations as real objects in a hypostasized space,

*as if*they existed independently in some pure world of their own. Thus, they reason that the amount of prime numbers is "infinite." Discussing the amount of prime numbers, mathematicians believe that they are discussing objects as real as collections of things in their everyday life.We use numbers casually and rigorously as a language to order space. Since ancient times, their archetypal dynamics have been the foundation of philosophy, religious, and artistic thought. Patterns of dynamic energy in numbers reflect patterns of nature--the order of the universe. Whether they actually

*form*the basis of the universe is the subject of ongoing debate among many schools of mathematicians. The qualitative distinctions we make between phenomena are fundamentally numerical. We still don't know why the universe appears to follow mathematical laws. However, as Hilbert has suggested, we do know that the idea of the Infinite deviates significantly from the situation in the physical Universe.Are numbers and functions the inventions of mathematicians, or do they exist independently of us? Just because a mathematical object can possibly exist doesn't mean it actually

*does*exist. Yet, mathematicians imagine they are talking about real objects, when they may be talking about stabilized concepts. The new direction in the philosophy of mathematics is a "*quasi-empirical approach that treats mathematics as just another messy experimental science.*" A partially unconscious process of idealization ends in the stable concept of numbers, points, lines, spheres.When working in geometry, a mathematician does not investigate the relations of real things. He investigates some idealized, fixed notion of these relations. This notion is subjectively treated as "reality" without any fundamental reality behind it. It can, therefore, arguably be considered art as well as science. In practice, mathematicians jump to conclusions, and after the jump has been made begin the labor of proving the theorem or constructing a coherent theory. This involves subconscious reasoning, tenacity, focus, judgement, concentration, elementary intuition, free association, and conceptual visualization.

Some say mathematics is a purely human construct, an artifact of our nervous systems and culture. Others attest that even chimps and infants are hard-wired by evolution for arithmetic to deal with real objects in the real world. Numbers are not Platonic ideals but neurological creations. Integers, like colors, are artifacts of our sensory processing mechanisms.

Dehaene traces the arithmetical model to the inferior parietal cortex. This poorly understood location is where visual, auditory, tactile signals, and language processing converge. Mathematics, or at least mathematical notation, is another human languge. It also appears to be the language of nature, and therefore physical reality. Of the infinite range of mathematical creations, scientists keep those that help explain and predict reality.

The concept of natural numbers is a fixed model, an idealization of quantitative relations which ends in stable concepts of numbers. The dynamics of those numbers are described in number theory. Number theory, one of the oldest branches of pure mathematics, concerns elementary properties of primes, divisibility among integers, the existence of greatest common divisors, the study of specific families of numbers, simple recurrent relations, factorization, and more. Syndex addresses these aspects with easy to state conjectures which can be understood and observed in graphics without any particular mathematical training.

Mathematical Platonism concerns the investigation of fixed or self-contained models. The Platonic Idea or Form is essentially an unchangeable form. As symbols, numbers express the particular in the universal, the eternal in the finite. They express the ordering function of their archetypal nature. The Neoplatonists assumed an a priori structure of knowledge grounded in archetypal forms and directed toward a unification of the ultimate principle of "the One" with the diverse phenomena of "the Many." This could also apply to the number field.

**We contend that the Holotomes are such self-contained models of holistic, self-reflective, finite portions of the number continuum. Holotomes are geometrically symmetrical, modular unities, based on the minimal numbers divisible by the the maximal factors of division. Each holotome adds an additional factor of divisibility to its circular unity. All base digits are captured by the number 2520.**Ancient astronomers saw symbols in the stars; the circle, triangle, square, parallelogram. The Spring constellation of

**Taurus**, the Bull, ushered in the Blazing Star of Sirius, the three kinds of Orion, the Five Hyades and the seven**Pleiades**, signifying the mystic numbers 1,**3, 5, 7**. The Nile began to rise in the springtime; Osiris returned with**Taurus**at the Vernal Equinox to regenerate the world, after being slain by Python, six months before, in the constellation Scorpio,which is opposite

**Taurus**in the sky.The ZodiacIt seems we can thank the ancient Sumerians for our constellations and the zodiac. Hugh Thurston described three scientific methods by which the date and latitude at which the original 48 constellations were established can be determined, in a book, 'Early Astronomy' (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994) p. 135-137. All three methods indicate, independently, that the heavens were divided up into constellations by a people who lived at a latitude of 36 degrees roughly 5000 years ago. This is summarized in an article by John P. Pratt, 'Scientifically Dating the Constellations':

http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/constellations_date.html

The most compelling of the three arguments concerns an "empty" part of the sky in the southern hemisphere which is devoid of any of the original 48 constellations.

The Empty Part of the sky. There is a circle of about 36° radius in the southern part of the sky which does not contain any of the original 48 constellations. That implies that the originators of the constellations lived at about 36° north latitude because at that location, exactly such an area of southern sky would be invisible to them. Moreover, the center of that circle moves very slowly through the sky because of the motion of the earth's axis. The location of the center of the empty part of the sky implies an origin date of about 2900 B.C.

As Pratt points out, 36° is too far north to have been Egypt, and too far south to indicate the Greeks. It is exactly the latitude of Sumer. Sumer is widely thought to have been one of, if not the, earliest civilizations and the Babylonians inherited much of their science from the Sumerians.

When the ancient Sumerian astronomers looked at the center of the northern night sky, they saw what they decided was a mythical serpent, a dragon, around which the other constellations appeared to revolve. This is the constellation 'Draco'.

The incredible thing about Draco is that it doesn't appear quite at what would have been the northernmost point in the sky at the time the Sumerian culture was thriving. It lies at true theoretical north, within a circle traced by the earth's axis over thousands of years as it slowly wobbles.

The North Star is presently Polaris, but a few thousand years ago it was Thuban. It will change again as the earth's axis slowly continues to shift. This wobbling of the earth causes what is known as the 'precession of the ages', from the age of Taurus when the Sumerians, Akkadians and Egyptians thrived, to the biblical age of Aries, to Pieces (the age we are in now), and next to the age of Aquarius, which we will enter around the year 2150. Draco the dragon creates an 'S' shape within a circle traced by earth's axis as it precedes through the zodiac, the entire cycle of which takes around 26,000 years. Incredibly, the ancient Sumerians apparently understood all of this. What evolved in Sumer that was so successful and became so ubiquitous was a hierarchical (pyramid-shaped) societal structure whereby a small group of elite priests and kings ruled over the rest of the populace. These ruling priest-kings claimed to descend from the gods and they propagated myths to support their claim, thereby insuring for themselves and their progeny a secure place at the top of society.

Just as the dragon ruled the heavens, these priest-kings adopted the dragon as a mark of their own royal status. This concept, along with other hallmarks of Sumerian culture, notably the idea of an elite embued with a divine right to rule, spread - to the Indus Valley and from there to China, to Egypt and to the Levant (modern Israel-Lebanon-Syria) and northern Mesopotamia, to places as far flung as Ireland (although Michael Tsarion apparently believes that the Sumerians inherited their dragon-culture from the Irish), and eventually to Anatolia (modern Turkey), Thrace, Greece, and the Black Sea region.

One major branch on this tree appears to have migrated northwest from the Black Sea into Germania and Scandinavia giving us such conquering tribes as the Franks and the Vikings, while another group went east as far as Mongolia (where they were known as the Xiongnu) before turning back and pushing west into Europe as the Huns. A third branch on this tree appears to have spread from Egypt to Greece and to the Levant, a sub-branch of which being the Israelites. There is plentiful evidence for all this, the clues are strewn about in all sorts of literature, myths, artifact finds and even in names printed on old maps.

Dragon statue on Fleet Street One of the of the most discernable of these clues is the dragon itself. The Vikings decorated the bows of their ships with dragons. In Norse mythology Sigund gains knowlege from eating the heart of a dragon. While the plundering Huns left little evidence of their culture behind, the Xiongnu who appeared along their anscestral line venerated the dragon and a powerful family among them were the Liu, a number of whom show up early in the available genealogy charts of Hunnic kings. The name Liu meant dragon in the Xiongnu tongue. Sigismund, a Holy Roman Emperor and long reigning king of Hungary had his own Order of the Dragon for his most venerated knights, and many European family coats of arms display dragons or griffins.

Dragons fill the Greek myths as well as many Medieval legends, as do sea-serpents and mermaids which are simply a variant on this same theme. Clovis, the first king of the Merovingian Franks (the subject of 'The D'aVinci Code') claimed descent from a sea-monster. One of the primary gods in the pantheons of the Amorites and other early pagan civilizations which thrived around Ugarit and Phoenicia thousands of years ago was 'Dagon'. The Egyptians meanwhile annointed their Pharoahs with the oil of a holy crocodile called the 'messeh', which is probably where our word messiah comes from.

In Asia, the dragon was long the symbol of the Chinese emperial throne, and the mausoleam in Nikko of Tokugawa Ieyasu who united Japan is awash in dragon images. The red cross featured on the Templar banner and the flag of England is named for St. George the dragon-slayer, the current British Pound coin displays a dragon, and in London's financial center, smack dab in the middle of Fleet Street near the Crown Temple Church (built by the Templar knights) stands a large statue of a dragon. Dragons are, if you care to look, literally everywhere.

http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/constellations_date.html

The most compelling of the three arguments concerns an "empty" part of the sky in the southern hemisphere which is devoid of any of the original 48 constellations.

The Empty Part of the sky. There is a circle of about 36° radius in the southern part of the sky which does not contain any of the original 48 constellations. That implies that the originators of the constellations lived at about 36° north latitude because at that location, exactly such an area of southern sky would be invisible to them. Moreover, the center of that circle moves very slowly through the sky because of the motion of the earth's axis. The location of the center of the empty part of the sky implies an origin date of about 2900 B.C.

As Pratt points out, 36° is too far north to have been Egypt, and too far south to indicate the Greeks. It is exactly the latitude of Sumer. Sumer is widely thought to have been one of, if not the, earliest civilizations and the Babylonians inherited much of their science from the Sumerians.

When the ancient Sumerian astronomers looked at the center of the northern night sky, they saw what they decided was a mythical serpent, a dragon, around which the other constellations appeared to revolve. This is the constellation 'Draco'.

The incredible thing about Draco is that it doesn't appear quite at what would have been the northernmost point in the sky at the time the Sumerian culture was thriving. It lies at true theoretical north, within a circle traced by the earth's axis over thousands of years as it slowly wobbles.

The North Star is presently Polaris, but a few thousand years ago it was Thuban. It will change again as the earth's axis slowly continues to shift. This wobbling of the earth causes what is known as the 'precession of the ages', from the age of Taurus when the Sumerians, Akkadians and Egyptians thrived, to the biblical age of Aries, to Pieces (the age we are in now), and next to the age of Aquarius, which we will enter around the year 2150. Draco the dragon creates an 'S' shape within a circle traced by earth's axis as it precedes through the zodiac, the entire cycle of which takes around 26,000 years. Incredibly, the ancient Sumerians apparently understood all of this. What evolved in Sumer that was so successful and became so ubiquitous was a hierarchical (pyramid-shaped) societal structure whereby a small group of elite priests and kings ruled over the rest of the populace. These ruling priest-kings claimed to descend from the gods and they propagated myths to support their claim, thereby insuring for themselves and their progeny a secure place at the top of society.

Just as the dragon ruled the heavens, these priest-kings adopted the dragon as a mark of their own royal status. This concept, along with other hallmarks of Sumerian culture, notably the idea of an elite embued with a divine right to rule, spread - to the Indus Valley and from there to China, to Egypt and to the Levant (modern Israel-Lebanon-Syria) and northern Mesopotamia, to places as far flung as Ireland (although Michael Tsarion apparently believes that the Sumerians inherited their dragon-culture from the Irish), and eventually to Anatolia (modern Turkey), Thrace, Greece, and the Black Sea region.

One major branch on this tree appears to have migrated northwest from the Black Sea into Germania and Scandinavia giving us such conquering tribes as the Franks and the Vikings, while another group went east as far as Mongolia (where they were known as the Xiongnu) before turning back and pushing west into Europe as the Huns. A third branch on this tree appears to have spread from Egypt to Greece and to the Levant, a sub-branch of which being the Israelites. There is plentiful evidence for all this, the clues are strewn about in all sorts of literature, myths, artifact finds and even in names printed on old maps.

Dragon statue on Fleet Street One of the of the most discernable of these clues is the dragon itself. The Vikings decorated the bows of their ships with dragons. In Norse mythology Sigund gains knowlege from eating the heart of a dragon. While the plundering Huns left little evidence of their culture behind, the Xiongnu who appeared along their anscestral line venerated the dragon and a powerful family among them were the Liu, a number of whom show up early in the available genealogy charts of Hunnic kings. The name Liu meant dragon in the Xiongnu tongue. Sigismund, a Holy Roman Emperor and long reigning king of Hungary had his own Order of the Dragon for his most venerated knights, and many European family coats of arms display dragons or griffins.

Dragons fill the Greek myths as well as many Medieval legends, as do sea-serpents and mermaids which are simply a variant on this same theme. Clovis, the first king of the Merovingian Franks (the subject of 'The D'aVinci Code') claimed descent from a sea-monster. One of the primary gods in the pantheons of the Amorites and other early pagan civilizations which thrived around Ugarit and Phoenicia thousands of years ago was 'Dagon'. The Egyptians meanwhile annointed their Pharoahs with the oil of a holy crocodile called the 'messeh', which is probably where our word messiah comes from.

In Asia, the dragon was long the symbol of the Chinese emperial throne, and the mausoleam in Nikko of Tokugawa Ieyasu who united Japan is awash in dragon images. The red cross featured on the Templar banner and the flag of England is named for St. George the dragon-slayer, the current British Pound coin displays a dragon, and in London's financial center, smack dab in the middle of Fleet Street near the Crown Temple Church (built by the Templar knights) stands a large statue of a dragon. Dragons are, if you care to look, literally everywhere.